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Newsletter - Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences


AABC - Volume 90.2 (Suppl. 1 ) - August 2018



A total of 50 articles are published in the present issue of the AABC. As usual, most fall into the category of Biological Sciences (16), followed by Agrarian Sciences (12). Contributions in Earth (7), Biomedical (7), Chemical (5) and Social Sciences (3) complete this supplement.

Among the highlights is a study on the droughts in the Northeast region of Brazil, indicating that rainfall has been below normal for several decades, with severe consequences. Other papers in Earth Sciences address topics such as high-resolution maps in Antarctica and stratigraphic studies of important paleontological deposits of Brazil.

In Biological Sciences, there is a paper on the evaluation of the effects of natural extracts aiming to control Aedes aegypti. Other publications deal with the mercury content in jaguars that live in two gold mining areas, the effects of deforestation in a semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest remnant, and a new way to assess the air quality in urban areas employing lichen transplants.

Among the studies in Biomedical Sciences is a paper on nanoparticles that could be used in cancer therapy.

Lastly, I would like to point out the study that reveals details about the Paleoindian occupation of the Lagoa Santa region in Minas Gerais and the science communication activities in Brazil based on dissertations, theses and papers.

Please keep in mind that since 2000, all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site and previous editions of the Newsletter are available at the ABC website.

We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner






1- Nonylphenol: Properties, legislation, toxicity and determination
Authors: Frederico G. de  Araujo, Glauco F. Bauerfeldt and  Yara Peluso Cid

This work aims to collect and discuss important information about nonylphenol, such as physicochemical properties, toxicity and analytical methods in several matrices, as a way of targeting new works, since Nonylphenol presents harmful effects and does not present a regulation in Brazil. For this, continuous monitoring of this pollutant is required in environmental samples. In this work, it is possible to find some initial conditions for the development of new methodologies for the determination of Nonylphenol in the different matrices.

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2- Chemical constituents of apolar fractions from fruit latex of twelve Clusia species (Clusiaceae)
Authors:  Claudio A.G. da Camara, Anita J. Marsaioli and Volker Bittrich

The chemical composition of the apolar fraction of latex from fruits of twelve Clusia species pertinent to four sections (Chlamydoclusia, Criuva, Phloianthera andCordylandra) was determinated by GC and GC-MS Analysis. The latex showed colours from white to yellowish green with characteristic citric odours. The main constituents of latex present in the different Clusia species were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and as the major percentile was observed verbenone in C. grandiflora and β-caryophyllene in C. hilariana. Our study shows qualitative and quantitative differences in the chemical compositions for the studied Clusia species, even between species belonging to the same taxonomic group.

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3- Green speciation of iron using aqueous two-phase system
Authors: Raquel A. Campos, Pamela  R. Patrício,  Silvia Juliana R. Vargas, Luis Henrique Mendes da Silva and  Maria C.  Hespanhol

An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consists of two immiscible liquid phases formed by combining aqueous solutions of two components under specific thermodynamic conditions. Each phase is rich in one of the components, but water is the major component in both phases. There is a lack of knowledge about the use of ATPS to prepare samples for chemical speciation. In this work an ATPS is used to separate Fe(III) from Fe(II) allowing the determination of both ions by the non-selective flame atomic absorption spectrometry. ATPS is promising for chemical speciation due its high separation efficiency, low cost, and easy operation. In addition, it does not use hazardous organic solvents, and its components can be recycled.

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4- Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antimicrobial activity of hydroxyl amides synthesized from natural products derivatives
Authors: Maria Amelia D. Boaventura, Laura F.W.  Xavier, Henriete S. Vieira, Jacqueline A.  Takahashi, WiltonJ.D. Nascimento Junior, Tamires P. Araujo and Amanda C.S. Coelho

Thirteen natural products derivatives of hydroxyl amide class, three described for the first time, were synthesized by reaction of three indole acids and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid with six different amino alcohols in the presence of triphenylphosphine and N-bromosuccinimide. The derivatives were tested against the Gram (+) bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, Gram (-) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, besides the yeast Candida albicans. One of the compounds was selectively active against C. albicans, being more active than the positive control, miconazole. The same compound also showed more activity than the control galantamine, in the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay.

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5- Isoflavonoid composition and biological activity of extracts from soybean seedlings treated by different elicitors
Authors: Diego Durango, Jennifer Murillo, Fernando Echeverri, Gustavo Escobar   and Winston Quiñones

Several synthetic elicitors such as the salicylic and isonicotinic acids as well as twenty-five analogues were applied to soybean seedlings. Some elicitors (e.g. 2,3-dihydro-quinazolinones), were evaluated for the first time in soybean. As a result, the amount of isoflavonoides was significantly increased. A differential response was noticed, depending upon type of elicitor, concentration and time of exposure. Treatments with elicitors enhanced the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of soybean. These synthetic elicitors can have a role in the production of healthier foods and in the crop protection. Soybean treated with elicitors may be an enriched natural source of bioactive extracts and compounds.

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6- Climatic characteristics of the 2010-2016 drought in the semiarid Northeast Brazil region
Authors: José A. Marengo, Lincoln M. Alves, Regina C.S. Alvala, Ana Paula Cunha, Sheila Brito and Osvaldo L.L. Moraes

Droughts are recurrent in the Northeast Brazil region. The drought affecting this region during the last 5 years shows an intensity not seen in several Our analysis shows that since the middle 1990s to 2016, 16 out of 25 years experienced rainfall below normal, suggesting that  the recent drought may have in fact started in the middle-late 1990s, with the most intense droughts of 1983 and 1998, and then the sequence of dry years starting in 2012. The current drought has affected the levels of reservoirs in the region, leading to a real water crisis that affected water and food security of population od the semiarid region.

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7- Remote sensing of the chlorophyll-a based on OLI/Landsat-8 and MSI/Sentinel-2A (Barra Bonita reservoir, Brazil)
Authors: Fernanda Watanabe, Enner Alcântara, Thanan Rodrigues, Luiz Rotta, Nariane Bernardo and Nilton Imai

In this research, we showed the applicability of OLI/Lansat-8 and MSI/Sentinel-2 images at estimating chlorophyll concentration in a tropical eutrophic reservoir. The red-NIR algorithms based on MSI bands presented better performances than those parameterize from OLI bands. Simple ratio and slope algorithms yielded the best performances for chlorophyll-a retrieval, showing that the insertion of a third band is not necessary for this kind of aquatic system. In spite of producing lower results, OLI bands-based slope algorithm was efficient in represent the spatial distribution of the chlorophyll-a concentration in the reservoir.

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8- High resolution topography for Digital Terrain Model (DTM) in Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica
Authors: Adriano L. Schünemann, Pedro Henrique A. Almeida, André Thomazini, Elpídio I. Fernandes Filho, Márcio R. Francelino, Antonio Carlos E.G.R. Schaefer and Antonio Batista Pereira

High resolution maps are an important tool to model landscapes, especially in zones subjected to strong environmental changes due to periglacial processes, such as Antarctica. In this region, landforms are highly influenced by cryoclasty and permafrost melting, promoting modifications on the survey. The work generated a digital terrain model of high resolution (0.20 m) using a terrestrial laser scanner. With this, we can obtain terrain variables (i.e slope, aspect), as well as surface models with high performance, enabling studies of geomorphological process. The digital terrain model is available at: here.

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9- New Holocene pollen records from the Brazilian Caatinga
Authors: Vanda B. de Medeiros, Paulo E. de Oliveira, Rudney A. Santos, Alcina M.F. Barreto, Marcelo A.T. Oliveira and Jorge L.D. Pinaya

Pollen diagrams from the semi-arid Caatinga in Pernambuco and Piauí, NE Brazil, spanning the last 10,000 cal. yrs BP, permit the correlation of the pollen signal with regional climatic changes. The Pernambuco record indicate regional Caatinga vegetation and local arboreal taxa adapted to high humidity from 10,000 to ca. 6,000 cal. yrs BP, followed by drier conditions revealed by a deposition hiatus between 6000 to ca. 2000 cal. yrs BP. This abrupt loss of sediments in both localities is interpreted as a consequence of the establishment of modern semi-arid climates.

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10- Uncertainties Associated with Arithmetic Map Operations in GIS
Authors: Jorge K. Yamamoto, Antônio T. Kikuda Guilherme J. Rampazzo and Claudio B.B. Leite

Arithmetic map operations are very common procedures used in GIS to combine raster maps. It is essential that this new map be accompanied by an assessment of uncertainty. In this paper, we show how we can calculate the uncertainty of the resulting map after performing some arithmetic operation. Actually, the propagation of uncertainty depends on a reliable measurement of the local accuracy and local covariance, as well. In this sense, the use of the interpolation variance is proposed, and Taylor series expansion is used to derive the mean and variance of the function defined by an arithmetic operation.

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Authors: Carlos E. Fabin, Osvaldo J. Correia-Filho, Márcio L. Alencar, José A. Barbosa, Tiago S. de Miranda, Virgínio H. Neumann, Igor F. Gomes and Felipe R.  de Santana

An analysis of the Aptian-Albian siliciclastic-evaporitic succession of the Araripe Basin is presented, focusing its origin and stratigraphic relationships within the first post-rift sequence. Application of sequence stratigraphy concepts allowed to determine that the Ipubi Formation formed during a climate-driven transgressive-regressive cycle which expanded the Araripe Lake domains. The succession initiated with deposition of anoxic shales, and during the high stand a series of salinas and coastal sabkhas formed in proximal areas, where the gypsum-anhydrite beds were deposited. The regression caused exposition and karstification of evaporite deposits, which influenced the depositional architecture of the subsequent Romualdo Formation.

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12- Limnology of the largest multi-use artificial reservoir in NE Brazil: The Castanhão Reservoir, Ceará State
Authors: Luiz D. Lacerda, Janayna A. Santos, Rozane V. Marins and Francisco A.T.F. da Silva

The long-term biogeochemical and remote sensing  monitoring of the largest multi-use reservoir of NE Brazil showed that its water quality depends on the thermal stratification, which alllows the accumulation of nutrients and organic Carbon in the hypolimnion. This increases the support capacity of this ecosystem to high emissions from aquaculture and irrigated agriculture. However, during extended drough periods, the reduction of the reservoir volume leads to breaking the thermocline, releasing nutrients to the epilimnion and turns the ecosystem from oligothrophic to supereuthrophic. Since longer drought periods are increasing in frequency  due to global climate change, a reavaluation of the reservoir multi-use relative to its support capacity in a scenario of global change is urgent.

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13- Growth of the Anchovy Anchoa tricolor in a brazilian subtropical estuary
Authors: Barbara M. de Maichak, Nelson F. Fontoura and Henry L. Spach

This study aimed to describe the growth parameters of Anchoa tricolor in a subtropical estuary. Were captured in the intertidal region of the Estuarine Complex of Paranaguá, Brazil. Weight/length relationship was described as follow: W = 0.0000591.Ct3.282 showing a positive allometric growth. Significant differences concerning weight/length relationship for males, females and unsexed individuals were identified. Parameters of the length to age growth curve were estimated by adjusting a von Bertalanffy growth equation from aged individuals from a length-frequency distribution: L= 10.06 (1-e-17715(t + 0.205). The growth parameters and frequency distribution indicate the A. tricolor uses the estuary for growth.

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14- Anatomical, phytochemical and histochemical study of Solidago chilensis Meyen
Authors: Douglas M.F. de Souza, Rafaela D. Sá, Evani L. Araújo and Karina P. Randau

Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) is a plant native to South America and the only representative of the genus in Brazil. This species is popularly known as “arnica” and is used to treat bruises, muscle pain and inflammation. In order to contribute to the pharmacognostic standardization of the species, a microscopic study of root, stem and leaf was carried out using different microscopy techniques. In addition, histochemical and phytochemical tests were also performed on the leaf, identifying its main compounds.

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Authors: Cleber Salimon and Liana Anderson

Rainfall has strong impacts on vegetation dynamics in semiarid Brazil, and could decrease by as much as 60% until late 21st Century, due to climate change. We analyzed satellite-derived rainfall and plant productivity for natural vegetation in Paraíba State, Brazil. Rainfall explained as much as 50% of plant productivity. In an extreme dry year (2012), with 65% less rainfall than average for the period 2001-2012, plant productivity decreased 25%, becoming more like a desert. Such decrease, if rainfall reduction persists in the coming years, could disrupt the dominant vegetation, bringing serious environmental, social and economical impacts.

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16- Mercury content in the fur of jaguars (Panthera onca) from two areas under different levels of gold mining impact in the Brazilian Pantanal
Authors: Joares A. May Júnior, Howard Quigley, Rafael Hoogesteijn, Fernando Rodrigo Tortato, Allison Devlind,  Rui M. de Carvalho Júnior, Ronaldo G. Morato, Leonardo R. Sartorello, Lilian E. Rampim, Mario Haberfeld, Rogério C. de Paula and Jairo José Zoccheh

Gold mining activities has released mercury (Hg) in the Pantanal environment. Hg has bioaccumulated through the Pantanal's complex, biodiverse foodweb. The Jaguars (Panthera onca) show great potential to accumulate Hg by biomagnification. We recorded the highest Hg level ever recorded in a wild animal and the Hg concentrations were significantly higher in jaguars captured near from gold mines.

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17- Evaluation of embryotoxic and embryostatic effects of the aqueous extract of Rhizophora mangle and tannic acid on eggs and larvae of Aedes aegypti
Authors: Ageu A. Rodrigues Neto, Plínio P. Gomes Júnior, Maurício C. Silva, Cláudia S.A. Lima, Ricardo Yara,  Emília B. Guimarães, Eduarda S. de Santana, Luzia A.  da Silva, Eduardo J.R.V. de Lira and Jeymesson R.C. Vieira

Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits dengue, ZIKA fever, chikungunya fever and yellow fever. This study aimed to evaluate the embryotoxic and embriostatic effects of aqueous extract of R. mangle and synthetic tannic acid on eggs and larvae of Aedes aegypti. Aqueous extract of R. mangle showed effect on hatching of A. aegypti eggs and synthetic tannic acid showed embryotoxic and embryostatic effects. On larvae, both aqueous extract as tannic acid showed embryotoxic and embryostatic effects. Purification of tannins from Rhizophora mangle is underway, and further investigations may improve understanding of possible development of natural products in Aedes aegypti control.

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18- Beneficial effects of bio-controlling agent Bacillus cereus IB311 on the agricultural crop production and its biomass optimization through response surface methodology
Authors: Goutam Banerjee, Srikanth Gorthi and Pritam Chattopadhyay

Disease in agricultural field is a problem that causes massive loss in production. We reported a soil-borne bacterium which is antagonistic to plant pathogens and could make substantial contribution preventing plant diseases. To prove the practical application, strain was directly applied in agricultural field. Results demonstrated that B. cereus IB311 increased the production in ground nut and sesame. Interactions of three variables were studied using Central Composite Design. Optimum production of Bacillus cereus IB311 may be obtained at glucose 1.985%, beef extract 1.615% and inoculums size 0.757%. We believe that applying this strain in agricultural field as bio-controlling agent will enhance production yield and reduce disease risk.

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19- Treatment with either leflunomide or adalimumab reduces anaemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Authors: Ione C.P. Pereira, Nágila C.F. Sousa, Domingos M.S. Pereira, Saulo J.F. Mendes, Thayanne F. Muniz, Valderlane L.P.  Colares, Bruna L.R. Silva, Cinara R.A.V. Monteiro, Mahiba M.R.S. Martins, Anita M.R. Fernandes and Elizabeth S.  Fernandes

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and painful disease of the joints, frequently associated with anaemia. Some of the drugs used in RA treatment improve anaemia, but little is known on the beneficial effects of the anti-rheumatic leflunomide or the anti-TNFα adalimumab, in this parameter. We investigated the incidence of anaemia in RA patients treated or not with these drugs. Anaemia was present in patients recently diagnosed with RA who had never taken anti-rheumatic therapy, but not in those receiving leflunomide or adalimumab. We suggest that leflunomide and adalimumab may be useful in treating anaemia in RA patients.

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20- Post-seminal development and morphoanatomy of vegetative and reproductive organs in Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni (Asteraceae)
Authors: Mônica L. Rossi, Everton H. Souza, Erika M. Graner, Marcílio de Almeida and Adriana P. Martinelli

This article describes and illustrates morphological and histological aspects of leaves, floral structures and post-seminal development in Stevia rebaudiana presented here include new details regarding the botanical description and taxonomy of this important species and can contribute to a better knowledge of the evolution of morphological characters in Asteraceae.

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21- Cell Division in genus Corynebacterium: protein-protein interaction and molecular docking of SepF and FtsZ in the understanding of cytokinesis in pathogenic species
Authors: Alberto F. de Oliveira Jr, Edson L. Folador, Anne C.P. Pinto, Aristótoles Goes-Neto,  Vasco A.C.  Azevedo and Alice R. Wattam

Nowadays, nature has been enhancing the ability of bacteria to resist the vast array of antibiotics available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for new drug targets capable of neutralizing the activity of pathogenic bacteria. The proposed work addresses the interaction between FtsZ-SepF in species of the genus Corynebacterium, which are proteins involved in a cellular event of extreme importance for bacteria, cell division, which allows us to approach new targets in the struggle against infection by these microorganisms. Our results indicate that both proteins have a strong molecular interaction, as well as evidences on the mutual expression of these proteins in different environmental conditions.

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22- Responses of riffle beetle assemblages to deforestation in a semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest remnant
Authors: Bruna M. Braun, Tiago R.N. Bertaso, Mateus M. Pires, Marcia R. Spies and Carla B. Kotzian

This study evaluated the structure of Elmidae communities in streams that cover a well-preserved remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, where the effect of different substrate types in the community structuring were also evaluated. The results showed that the structure of the communities were affected by the presence of well-preserved vegetation. Lower abundance occurred in deforested streams. The substrate type did not affect the composition of the genera of Elmidae. The presence of exotic vegetation in the converted sites influenced the quality of allochthonous material, thus affecting the structuring of the communities.

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23- Influence of hesperidin and vitamin C on glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and DNA damage in rats treated with sucrose overload
Authors:  Silvia I.R. Franke, Patrícia Molz, Camila Mai, Joel H. Ellwanger, Fernanda F. Zenkner,  Jorge A. Horta and Daniel Prá

In this study, we evaluated the impact of hesperidin and vitamin C (VitC) on glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and DNA damage in male Wistar rats treated with sucrose overload. In brief, co-treatment of sucrose with VitC, but not with hesperidin, normalized serum glucose; Rats co-treated with hesperidin plus sucrose had a significantly lower DNA damage level in blood and brain; Rats treated with VitC only, but not those co-treated with VitC plus sucrose, had significantly higher DNA damage in brain cells. In conclusion, VitC lowered the serum glucose and hesperidin reduced the DNA damage.

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24- Early fragmentation of polyester urethane sheet neither causes persistent oxidative stress nor alters the outcome of normal tissue healing in rat sk
Authors: Sandro M. Sgrott,   Rodrigo D.  
Neves, Armando J. D'Acampora, Geraldo J.S. Bernardes, Luiz Belmonte, Thiago C. Martins, Franciane Bobinski, Eduardo Cargnin-Ferreira,   Andreza Hoepers, Clarissa M. Comim, Daniel F. Martins and Anna P. Piovezan

Silicone breast implant is associated with complications inherent to the surgical procedure while in prosthesis coated with polyurethane (PU) such complications are reduced. This work evaluated possible factors related, after PU implant at the rat dorsal skin. PU undergoes biodegradation at early period, related to innate immune response. Levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the peri-implant tissue were higher in PU group only at day 30. Oxidative damage associated with the inflammatory response to PU was found only seven-day post-implant. These results reinforce that biodegradation of PU involves aspects which constitute an important component of initial inflammatory response to biomaterials.

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25- Deformation of Mitochondrial Cristae in Human Neural Progenitor Cells Exposed to Valproic Acid
Authors: Rodrigo M. da Costa, Karina Karmirian and Stevens K. Rehen

Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the main anticonvulsive drugs used for epilepsy treatment, however, there has been an increase in association of risk of autism, attention deficit, reduced cognitive and motor abilities, complications with language and reduced intellectual performance in the infants associated to maternal VPA treatment during pregnancy. Alterations in mitochondria morphology and function were observed after VPA treatment. Our goal was to describe the ultrastructural alterations in mitochondria from human neural progenitor cells after VPA exposure. We propose in this work that VPA induces mitochondria cristae deformation and thus may impair metabolism and neural development.

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26- Air quality assessment in different urban areas from Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, using lichen transplants
Authors: Natalia Mossmann Koch, Fabiane Lucheta, Márcia Isabel Käffer, Suzana Maria de Azevedo Martins and Vera maria Ferrão Vargas

The present work assessed air quality in urban areas through transplants of the foliose lichen Parmotrema tinctorum. Besides, we tested whether there were differences among the studied sites, aiming to point out the main pollution characteristics of the areas. The monitoring was carried out in seven cities, which vary from mainly rural to mainly industrial, in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The effect of air pollution negatively reflected on the physiology parameters of the lichen and the concentration of all heavy metals increased after exposure. We pointed out that Charqueadas and Esteio had the worst air quality during this study. The results are of great public health concern and could be guidelines for future studies.

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27- Changes in microplanktonic protists assemblages promoted by the thermocline induced stratification around an oceanic archipelago
Authors: Alejandro E.S.F. da Costa, Jana R. de Santana and Sigrid Neumann Leitão

The archipelago of São Pedro e São Paulo is a set of small rocky islands in the Equatorial Atlantic. Around this archipelago, the thermocline is shallower than in the surrounding oceanic waters and as a consequence the upper 100 m of the water column is divided between a mixed surface layer and a subsurface layer by the thermocline. This feature is reflected in the dinoflagellate and tintinnid ciliates of the microplankton. Both groups are divided into typically surface and subsurface dwelling assemblages with ecological indicators for both layers. The polycystine radiolarians are not influenced in this depth interval.

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28- Morphological and histological characterization of sexual segment of the kidney in Notomabuya frenata (Cope, 1862) and Aspronema dorsivittatum (Cope, 1862) (Squamata, Mabuyidae)
Authors: Iara A. Novelli, Paola R. de Oliveira, Maria Christina M.N.  Castañon, Pilar C. Silva and Bernadete M. de Sousa

The present study was the first to characterize morphological and histologically the sexual segment of the kidney (SSK) of Notomabuya frenata and Aspronema dorsivittatum (Mabuyidae), viviparous species and from Brazil. The results indicated that the SSK of both species originates from the hypertrophy of the nephron collecting tubule, being present only in adult males and during the reproductive period. Histological analysis revealed no difference in the morpho-histological characteristics of the SSK of N. frenata and A. dorsivittatum.

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29- Consequences of gestational diabetes to the brain and behavior of the offspring
Authors: Ricardo A.L. de Sousa, Yasmin S. Torres, Claudia P. Figueiredo, Giselle F. Passos and  Julia R. Clarke

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GD) is defined as insulin resistance that develops during pregnancy. For many years, the transient nature of GD has led researchers to assume that significant long-term consequences were absent. However, enduring consequences on metabolism of both mother and offspring are associated to GD and recent and concerning evidences support that GD persistently affects the brains of the offspring. Here we review findings in GD patients and animal models that suggest that GD has consequences on the brains and behavior of the offspring, focusing on cognitive performance, as well as neuropsychiatric and mood disorders.

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30- Feline heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection: first case report of serological diagnosis in Brazil, confirmed by molecular assay
Authors: Barbara B. Pereira Bethânia F. Bastos,  Lucas Keidel, Daniela Leles and Beatriz Brener

The clinical importance of heartworm infection in cats has indeed increased in recent years. The diagnosis can be overlooked easily where there is not a specific feline immunodiagnostic test. A 10-year-old female cat was diagnosed using an antigen serological test designed for dogs. The modified Knott test was negative. The cat showed clinical signals and died few weeks after the diagnosis. During necropsy, a nematode was found in the pulmonar artery. Dirofilaria immitis infection was confirmed by molecular amplification. This is the first report of serological diagnosis of feline dirofilariosis in Brazil.

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31- Conformational analysis of Pneumococcal Surface Antigen A (PsaA) upon zinc binding by fluorescence spectroscopy
Authors: Ana Paula D.Ano Bom, Izabella B.S. Corrêa, Ana Paula C. Argondizzo, Marco Alberto Medeiros,  Roger B. dos Santos, Theo Luiz F. de Souza and José G. da Silva Junior

In the present work we analyze de zinc effect on recombinant pneumococcal surface antigen A (rPsaA), a potential candidate for the development of a protein-based vaccine against the S. pneumonia. Our results show rPsaA conformational change upon Zinc binding and the enhancement of rPsaA structural stability promoted by Zinc. Overall, these findings raise the discussion about PsaA structure analysis and can be considered in the development of vaccines containing PsaA as antigen.

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32- Minimum free energy predicted base pairing in the 39 nt spliced leader and 5' UTR of calmodulin mRNA from Trypanosoma cruzi: influence of the multiple trans-splicing sites.
Authors:  Franklyn Samudio  and  Adeilton Brandão

As a result of changes in the position of the trans splicing site for many trypanosome genes, the 5’ UTR in each mRNA may differ in nucleotide composition, which should influence the secondary structure this segment may display. Despite the nucleotide variation in T. cruzi calmodulin 5’UTR, it is demonstrated that the pattern of high probability base pairs in the minimum free energy predicted secondary structures remains unchanged, while for the 39 nt spliced leader (present in all trypanosomes mRNA), a variable pattern of high and low probability base pairing occurs as consequence of the altered composition in this segment.

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33- Production, characterization and toxicology assay of creatine pegylated nanoliposome with polysorbate 80 for brain delivery
Authors: Diego B. Borin, Nathana J. Mezzomo, Rodrigo A. Vaucher, Guilherme do Carmo, Luiz C. Rodrigues Junior, Fernando B. Sulczewski, Claiton I.  Schwertz, Ricardo  E. Mendes, Adriani P. Damiani, Vanessa M. de Andrade, Virginia C. Rech and Carina R. Boeck

Creatine acts intracellularly as energy buffer with new interesting effects against neurodegenerative diseases in animal models. However, its permeability through blood-brain barrier is reduced. In the present study a nanocarrier to creatine was developed to facilitate its delivery to the brain and potentiate neuroprotective effects. Creatine loaded-nanoliposomes were produced, characterized and assayed in models of toxicity in vitro and in vivo to endorse its safety. The results indicated that the permeability of creatine was increased through the brain, because higher levels were detected in the cerebral cortex without any toxicity in the tests evaluated.

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34- Perspectives of Dendrimer-based Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapy
Authors: Ricardo I. Castro, Oscar Forero-Doria and Luiz Guzmán

Chemotherapy traditionally suffers from a non-specific distribution, with only a small fraction of the drug reaching the tumor, in this sense, the use of Dendrimers that are repetitively branched molecules, and usually highly symmetric spherical compounds, could be used like drug-carriers or for drug delivery in cancer therapy. However, despite their unique properties still do not meet the necessary characteristic to be considered as an alternative for cancer therapy, nevertheless, the development and study of new dendrimers drug-carriers continues to be an important alternative as they can be functionalized with varied ligands as a potential adjunctive agent in cancer therapy.​

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35- Essential oils of green cumin and chamomile partially protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in rats
Author:  Mohamed E. Ebada

Acetaminophen is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic. Despite being safe, its overdose is associated with serious liver injury due to overproduction and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. This study aimed to evaluate whether essential oils of green cumin and chamomile would ameliorate acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in rats. Results revealed that rats treated with the cumin oil showed no increase in liver function enzymes and exhibited partial protection against acetaminophen-induced liver histopathology. On the other hand, the chamomile oil moderately attenuated glutathione depletion and reduced superoxide dismutase activity in acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. 

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36- Assessment of the occurrence and richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores by direct analysis of field samples and trap culture – a comparative study 
Authors: Patrícia L. Leal, Teotonio S. de Carvalho, José Oswaldo Siqueira and Fatima M.S. Moreira

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important components of belowground biodiversity because of their ubiquitous root symbiosis with most plant species in terrestrial ecosystems and because of their functional role in plant nutrition and growth. Therefore, accurate and feasible methods for AMF evaluation are required. We found that, in ecossystems with high AMF species richness, the assessment of spores directly extracted from field samples is far more sensitive in detecting shifts in AMF community composition among land uses than the analysis of those extracted from trap cultures, with the combined results of both methods being not better than that obtained only by direct analysis of field samples.

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37- Resistance of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria strains from Brazilian pepper to copper and zinc sulfates
Authors: Maysa S. Areas, Ricardo M. Gonçalves, José M. Soman, Ronaldo C. Souza Filho, Ricardo Gioria, Tadeu A.F. da Silva Junior and Antonio C. Maringoni

Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is one of the major bacterial diseases in pepper in Brazil. It was observed that the majority of X. euvesicatoria strains were resistant in vitro to copper and zinc sulfates. However, they were sensitive to the mixing of these products. It is suggested the use of copper and zinc fungicides mixture formulations for the disease management to avoid the selection of copper and zinc resistant bacterial strains.

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38- Comparative pollen morphological analysis in the subgenera Passiflora and Decaloba
Authors: Taliane L. Soares, Onildo N. Jesus, Everton H. Souza, Mônica L. Rossi and Eder J. Oliveira

The genus Passiflora is the most diversified of the Passifloraceae, and its palynology presents wide morphological variability. The objective of the study was to evaluate the pollen morphology of 18 Passiflora species belonging to the subgenera Passiflora and Decaloba in order to identify informative pollinic characteristics to contribute to the taxonomic classification of the genus. Differences in the pollen morphology were found between species, mainly in terms of shape, pollen aperture and ornamentation pattern of the exine. However, the morphology of Passifloraceae pollen can be used as a morphological descriptor to establish the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the species of this family.

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39- Dispersion and aggregation patterns of tree species in Araucaria Forest, Southern Brazil
Authors: João Paulo de Maçaneiro, André Luís de Gasper, Franklin Galvão and Lauri A. Schorn

Dispersal syndromes and spatial distribution can provide information about species ecology. However, few studies analyze these ecological patterns in different vegetation layers. We verified the relationship between the dispersion syndromes and the spatial distribution. We sampled 15,545 individuals in 103 species. We found significant differences between the number of species in the dispersion syndromes and spatial distribution patterns, being zoochoric and tends to clustering the most predominant. We also found interaction between the dispersion syndromes and spatial distribution patterns in the analyzed layers. The results demonstrate that the tree species of the different layers are related to the type of dispersion and the aggregation pattern.

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40- Mini-incubators improve the adventitious rooting performance of Corymbia and Eucalyptus microcuttings according to the environment they are conditioned
Authors: Gilvano E. Brondani, Leandro S. de Oliveira, Enéas R. Konzen, André L.L. da Silva and Jefferson  L. Costa

Adventitious rooting of microcuttings is a decisive step to enable the cloning of selected trees for commercial applications. We observed environmental differences in mini-incubator that influenced ex vitro rooting in Corymbia and Eucalyptus microcuttings, and the results were satisfactory to obtain clonal plants. A critical factor correlated with the production of clonal plants was the maximum temperature. The experimental system demonstrated the potential of mini-incubators coupled with the proper environment to optimize the adventitious rooting performance of Corymbia and Eucalyptus microcuttings. This method represents an economically viable option because low costs are involved in constructing both shade houses and mini-incubators.

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41- Growth of tree species and sugarcane production in agroforestry systems
Authors: Braulio O. Caron, Elvis F. Elli, Alexandre Behling, Elder Eloy, Denise Schmidt and John Stolzle

This study sought to provide new sustainable approaches for increasing the diversification of rural properties. It should help the producers for the appropriate planning, management, and decision-making strategies. New alternatives and results about the growth of tree species and the sugarcane yield in their understory were presented. While Eucalyptus presented higher growth rates compared to other tree species, less photosynthetically active radiation in its understory was available for the sugarcane. In this context, the key point of the agroforestry systems is to consider the interactions and benefits of both forestry and cultivated species.

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42- Genetic diversity of promising ‘conilon’ coffee clones based on morpho-agronomic variables
Authors: João Antonio D. Giles,  Fábio  L. Partelli, Adésio Ferreira, Joice P.  Rodrigues, Gleison Oliosi  and Fernando H. Lima e Silva

Knowledge of he genetic variability of a population is essential to guide its preservation and maintenance in addition to increasing the efficiency of genetic breeding programs. On this basis, this study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity of Coffea canephora genotypes using multivariate statistical procedures applied to a set of morpho-agronomic variables. Significant differences were detected by the F test at the 1% or 5% probability levels among the genotypes for all evaluated traits, demonstrating heterogeneity of genetic constitution in the studied population. Of the analyzed traits, mature fruit weight, yield, plant diameter, and orthotropic-shoot internode length were the most efficient to explain the dissimilarity among the genotypes.

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43- Thermal requirements, development and number of generations of Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
Authors: João P.P. Paes, Victor L.S. Lima, Dirceu Pratissoli, José R. Carvalho, Victor D. Pirovani  and Regiane C.O.F. Bueno

In this study, the effect of temperature on the growth of the European pepper moth, Duponchelia fovealis, was assessed at five constant temperatures (18, 21, 24, 27 and 30 °C). The European pepper moth was observed to complete its developmental stages (from egg to adult) at all the temperatures evaluated. From the results, it was evident that temperature affected the rate and development time of all the growth stages, to a significant degree. The European pepper moth takes 454 degree-days to complete development at 11.7 °C temperature threshold. This is a first report of temperature on D. fovealis development.

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44- Soil aggregation and carbon stabilization in burn and no-burn sugarcane management systems
Authors: Maria de Fátima Guimarães, José F. de  Oliveira, Tiago S. Telles,  Walquíria Machado, Graziela M.C. Barbosa and João Tavares Filho

Preserving sugarcane straw on the soil after harvest can improve soil structure and increase soil carbon stabilization, mainly in macroaggregates in non-burning sugarcane management systems. Our results suggest that in this case, unconfined carbon within aggregates was important for increasing soil carbon stabilization and that the 2.00-8.00 mm macroaggregates present in this system for increasing geometric and weight, increasing long-term erosion resistance compared to combustion systems.

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45- Timing carbon turnover (δ13C) in weaned piglet's brain by IRMS
Authors: Mayra A.D Saleh, Luan S. dos Santos, Dirlei A. Berto, Alessandro B. Amorim,  Vladimir E.  Costa and Carlos  Ducatti

Dietary supplementation of glutamate and nucleotides may present an additive-enhancing action and/or a health improvement for piglets; however, information regarding their action has been hard to unveil due to technical limitations. In this sense, the isotope-ratio mass spectrometry served as analytical tool to provide time-integrated estimate of assimilated and not just ingested nutrients, turning possible the assessment of nucleotides and glutamate effects on carbon turnover (δ13C) in the brain of weaned piglets. The results showed fastest (P<0.05) 13C-total substitution in cerebral tissue for glutamate diet, supporting its contribution to piglets’ brain development at post-weaning, despite the energy deficit experienced by them.

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46- Partum and postpartum characteristics on the postpartum rebreeding in beef cattle
Authors: Guilherme Joner, Dari C. Alves Filho, Ivan L. Brondani, Daniele Borchate, John  L. Klein, Camille C. Domingues, Leonel  S. Rodrigues and Diego S. Machado

The article presents data of reproductive process in beef cattle. Process that directly impacts the productivity of animal production in farms by establishing genetic growth of the herd as well as increasing zoo-technical indexes such as weaning and enjoyment rates. The reproductive efficiency of the herd is limited by the nutritional deficiency, which can be qualitative or quantitative, which results in gain of body weight and body condition score below what is necessary. We evaluated animals with body weight and body condition score below the one recommended in the literature to understand what other variables could interfere with reproductive efficiency.

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47- Spatial variability of tree species diversity in a mixed tropical forest in Southern Brazil
Authors:  Allan L. Pelissari, Afonso F. Filho, Angelo A. Ebling, Carlos R. Sanquetta, Vinicius C. Cysneiros  and Ana Paula D. Corte

Floristic surveys and diversity indices are often applied to measure tree species diversity in tropical forests, however, these analyses are frequently limited to the overall results. This study aimed to estimate the spatial variability of tree diversity and map their spatial patterns in a mixed tropical forest. We used indices to measure the tree species diversity, while geostatistics were applied to estimate spatial dependences and compose maps. Tree diversity presented spatial patterns, in which the dynamics were composed of heterogeneous mosaics spatially influenced by tree species with different ecological features and densities, advancement of forest succession, mortality, and cohorts.

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48- Extreme cultural persistence in eastern-central brazil: the case of lagoa santa paleoindians                                      
Authors: Astolfo G.M. Araujo, Francisco A. Pugliese Jr., Rafael O. dos Santos and Mercedes Okumura

A long term Paleoindian occupation was studied at Lapa do Santo rockshelter, Lagoa Santa region, Minas Gerais. The occupation, albeit discontinuous, spans 8240 years or 412 human generations. Data from lithic and bone artifacts, faunal remains and site formation were analyzed, and the main conclusion is that there is no evidence of important cultural changes during this period. This case study supports the idea of a very conservative nature of the Lagoa Santa Paleoindians, in accordance with data obtained from Paleoindians in Rio Grande do Sul.

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49- Brazilian science communication research: national and international contributions  
Authors: Germana Barata, Graça Caldas and Toss Gascoigne

Science communication activities and research in Brazil have improved continuously in the last 20 years with great investments on research and practice, postgraduate courses and it has become part of the government agenda. This paper analyzes this relevant moment and investigates the publication of dissertations, theses and papers in a national and international level. Brazil has solid research publications with a growth from 2002 on, with an important production concentrated in the Southeast, and by Education postgraduate programs or journals. Nevertheless, Brazil still needs to strengthen its international collaboration, first by considering Latin America, as our analyzes on international journals have shown. There is a need to take science communication to the next level and Brazil can be part of that.

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50- Geographic and Gender Diversity in the Brazilian Academy of Sciences
Authors: Nathália C. Ferrari, Raquel Martell, Daniela H.  Okido, Grasiele Romanzini, Viviane Magnan, Marcia C. Barbosa and Carolina Brito

Diversity does matter because it improves competitiveness, creativity and excellence. In this work, we raise the following questions: is Brazilian science diverse? How does diversity evolve along the researchers’ career in Brazil? We quantify the gender and geographic diversity in the most prestigious academic institution of Brazil, the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (ABC) and use the Brazilian Researchers’ Fellowship databank to quantify how diversity evolves. One of our main results is that the diversity decreases along the researchers’ career, reaching its lowest level among the ABC members: ABC concentrates 80% in the Southeast region and 86% of them are men.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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