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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 90.2 -June 2018



The present issue of the AABC presents 50 original studies in a diversity of scientific fields, most from Biological Sciences (20), followed by Agrarian (15) and Earth Sciences (6). Contributions in Chemical, Health, Engineering, Biomedical and Social Sciences can be also found.

The sole paper on Chemical Sciences actually addresses a health problem: tooth decay. Authors have analyzed the chemistry of essential oils from a certain plant species and how it might be used against bacteria present in the oral cavity with encouraging results.

Regarding Earth Sciences, the present issue of the AABC shows a study on the structure of thousands of lagoons in a specific area of the Pantanal. There are also papers addressing arguments for and against procedures on how to measure sea-level changes, and  detailed studies regarding the development of upland lakes in the Serra dos Carajás region.

In Biological Sciences, a paper presents the karyotypes of several snake species from Argentina, discussing potential mechanisms acting on chromosome evolution in the studied taxa. Other papers address the influence of the environment in the reproduction of commercially relevant freshwater prawns, the biofilm formation by two benthic diatoms, the effect of herbicides that remain present for long time in soils and how subsequent crops might be affected, and detailed studies of insects gall present in Pantanal areas.

The contributions in Agrarian Sciences published in the present volume are quite diverse, ranging from the evaluation of lamb carcasses, the effects of auxinic herbicides residues on succeeding crops, research on non-conventional vegetables consumed in Brazil, and the agronomic performance of cassava – to point out a few.

Lastly I would like to call your attention to a study focusing on the influence of podcast in science communication and another that criticizes publishers and the evaluation systems that are currently in place in Brazil.

Please keep in mind that since 2000, all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site and previous editions of the Newsletter are available at the ABC website.

We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner






1- Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from Citrus aurantifolia leaves and fruit peel against oral pathogenic bacteria
Authors: Raiane S. Lemes, Cassia C.F. Alves, Elisângela B.B. Estevam, Mariana B. Santiago, Carlos H.G. Martins, Tainá C.L. dos Santos, Antônio E.M. Crotti and Mayker Miranda

Tooth decay is a major public health problem which affects a large number of people in several countries. Even though more than 700 bacterial species have been detected in the oral cavity, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus stand out as the genera that cause tooth decay and other periodontal diseases. Essential oils from Citrus aurantifolia leaves (CL-EO) and fruit peel (CP-EO) were obtained by hydrodistillation by a Clevenger-type apparatus whereas their chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Essential oils displayed promising activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 20 µg/mL) and Lactobacillus casei (31.25 µg/mL).

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2- The expression of neotectonics in the Pantanal da Nhecolândia, State of Mato Grosso do Sul – Brazil
Authors: Ana Paula G. Oliveira, Rômulo Machado, Alisson A. Ribeiro, Camila L. Mioto, José Marcato Júnior, Antônio R. Saad, Joel B. Sígolo and Antonio C. Paranhos Filho

Pantanal da Nhecolândia, located in the southern part of the Taquari River megafan, is characterized by the existence of at least 17,631 lagoons. Studies based on satellite images revealed that the major axes of the lagoons are aligned along two directions, NE (62.49%) and NW (37.51 %), suggesting in both cases the role played by tectonic control (neotectonics) in their formation. Evidences of fluvial origin are presented for these groups of lagoons.

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3- Morphology and morphometry of upland lakes over lateritic crust, Serra dos Carajás, southeastern Amazon region
Authors: Marcio S. da Silva, José T.F. Guimarães, Pedro W.M. Souza Filho, Wilson Nascimento Júnior, Prafulla K. Sahoo, Francisco R. da Costa, Renato O. Silva Júnior, Tarcisio M. Rodrigues and Marlene F. da Costa

Remote sensing techniques, bathymetric and sedimentological surveys coupled with statistical analysis were used to understand the five upland and active lakes of Serra Sul dos Carajás, southeast Amazonia. The largest lakes may present large vertical movements of the water due to wind action and weakly stratified waters. The upland lakes are circular to subcircular and concave, likely formed by solution process. Based on the relationship between morphometric and limnological parameters, it was possible to suggest that these lakes are mainly controlled by their catchment characteristics.

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4- Removal of synthetic sex hormones by hydrothermal carbonization
Authors: Ruiter L. Morais, Mariângela F. Santiago, Joachim W. Zang, Warde A. Fonseca-Zang and Fernando Schimidt

One of the most prominent fields of environmental chemistry is the study and the removal of micro-pollutants from aqueous matrices. This study aims to check whether the process of hydrothermal carbonization (CHT) is effective in removing the synthetic sex hormones: ethinyl estradiol, gestodene and cyproterone acetate from aqueous samples. In individual tests removal of the compounds was found to be 99.8% for ethinyl estradiol, 99.3% for gestodene and 100% for cyproterone acetate. For a mixture of the hormones treated under the same conditions, the mean values of CHT-removal of Ethinylestradiol, Gestodene and Cyproterone Acetate were 99.60%, 96.80% and 68.90%, respectively.

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5- Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 06 in Brazil: the universal access to sanitation as a possible mission
Authors: Cintia M.M. Dias,  Luiz P. Rosa, Jose M.A. Gomez and Alexandre d’Avignon

Sanitation is precarious in Brazil and therefore poses a challenge to a range of actors. Universalization of any major public service appears difficult, if not impossible; however, Brazil’s program to universalize access to electricity proves the opposite, as will be shown in this paper. By describing the successful implementation of electricity for everyone, we show that planned public efforts, coordinated with private initiatives and local communities, have worked, and the same can be achieved for the sanitation sector. An overview of all sectors that touch on sanitation and emissions is also provided, highlighting the challenges and possibilities for infrastructure projects. 

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6- Comments to Angulo et al. 2016 on “Sea-level fluctuations and coastal evolution in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern – Brasil” by Castro et al. 2014
Authors:  João Wagner A. Castro,  José C.S. Seoane,  Aline M. da Cunha, Julia V. Malta, Camila A. de Oliveira, Stella R. Vaz  and Kenitiro Suguio

This manuscript aims to discuss issues raised by Angulo et al. (2016) regarding the sea-level change curve proposed by Castro et al. (2014) to the Rio de Janeiro State coast, Brazilian southeast. Here, we put into question the relative sea-level change curve model proposed by Angulo et al. (2006 - 2016) to the coast of Rio de Janeiro State and Pernambuco State. All issues regarding the curve drawn by Castro et al. (2014) are answered based on field data, laboratory analytical techniques, radiocarbon dating as well as relevant literature.

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7-Reply to Castro et al. 2018 on “Holocene paleo-sea level  changes along the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southern Brazil”
Authors: Rodolfo J. Angulo, Paulo C.F. Giannini, Maria Cristina de Souza and Guilherme C. Lessa

The paper discusses how to determine Quaternary paleo-sea levels at Rio de Janeiro coast. We pointed out that the vertical position of a paleo-sea level indicator (e.g. biological remain or facies contact) is not the position of the paleo-sea level. To reconstruct paleo-sea levels it is crucial to determine the relationship of a given indicator to the present homologous one. In this way relative paleo-sea levels can be inferred without knowing the elevation of the mean sea level or other datum. Alternatively, the paleo-sea level can also be determined adding (or subtracting) the altitude of the indicator to the altitude (or depth) of the present homologous indicator. Another important point regards the margin of error, which can only be established if considering the indicator’s intrinsic characteristics.

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8- Density, abundance and extractive potential of the mangrove crab, Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) (Brachyura, Ocypodidae): subsidies for fishery management
Authors: Marcelo A.A.  Pinheiro, Marcelo R. Souza, Luciana C.M. Santos and Roberto F.C. Fontes

Structure, density, abundance, fishery potential and stock of Ucides cordatus were evaluated in Brazil Southeast (Iguape, SP). Density (ind.m-2) was registered by month (September 1998 to August 1999) using sampling quadrats (2x2 m) and compared to flooding level by tides. Crab density (2 to 11 ind.m-2; 6±2 ind.m-2) differed among months (F=11.58; p=0.000), decreasing with the higher tidal flooding (r=−0.94; p=0.001). Studied area (10.61 km2) had an absolute abundance of 63.7 millions of crabs, considering 34.9% of reduction due to total mortality discount. This information is uncommon in literature and can aid future population management of this species.

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9- The monotypic Brazilian genus Diacrodon is a synonym of Borreria (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae): morphological and molecular evidences
Authors: Laila M. Miguel, Sandra V. Sobrado, Steven Janssens, Steven Dessein and Elsa L. Cabral

In this work, we address two objectives: evaluate the systematic position of the monotypic genus Diacrodon and determine the identity of this genus in respect to other taxa. Molecular analyses indicate that D. compressus is strongly related to other species of Borreria. The morphological results revealed that D. compressus, despite of its type of fruit, is identical to Borreria in floral and palynological features. As conclusion, the new combination Borreria diacrodonta is made and a lectotype is designated. An updated description of the species and a key to the Borreria species with a two lobed calyx are provided.

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10- Comparative cytogenetic analysis  in Erythrolamprus snakes (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Argentina
Authors: Camila Falcione, Alejandra Hernando and Maria José Bressa

We described the karyotypes of five snake taxa from Argentina: Erythrolamprus almadensis, E. ceiiE. poecilogyrus caesius, E. p. schotti and E. p. sublineatus, and also intergrading individuals between the last two subspecies by conventional staining, chromosome bandings and FISH. The cytogenetic characters were taxonomically informative:  E. poecilogyrus allowed distinguishing two karyotypes and revealed karyological specific characteristics in E. p. caesius that makes it a different species. This work provides comparative cytogenetic analyzes that contributes to the already remarkable karyotypic variability in Erythrolamprus and proposes a hypothesis about potential mechanisms involved in the chromosome evolution among taxa analyzed.

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11- Influence of temperature and conductivity on the life-history characteristics of a pampean strain of Brachionus plicatilis
Authors: Noelia S. Ferrando, María C. Claps, Hernán H. Benítez and  Néstor A. Gabellone

Natural populations of the euryhaline rotifer Brachionus plicatilis are found in aquatic environments including freshwater, brackish, and marine ecosystems. The first approach about its life-history in South America was here provided with laboratory experiments of the response for its main stressors (conductivity and temperature). Results demonstrated that the increase in population-growth rate and the peak of abundance occurred at 25ºC and at 5 mS.cm-1. The experiments indicated the behavior of this relevant zooplankton member within a scenario of increasing temperature and salinity related to the climate changes revealing the possible dominance of this pampean strain in the water bodies.

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12- The influence of environmental variables in the reproductive performance of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) (Caridea: Palaemonidae) females in a continental population
Authors: João Alberto F. Pantaleão, Abner Carvalho-Batista, Sarah S.A. Teodoro and Rogério C. Costa

Macrobrachium amazonicum is a commercially important freshwater prawn with a high degree of reproductive plasticity. We investigated the influence of environmental factors in the fecundity, reproductive output and egg volume of a continental population during a two-year period, comparing our results with those obtained for other continental and coastal populations. Reproductive parameters differed markedly between continental and coastal populations. The continental population studied here, however, exhibited reproductive characteristics similar to those of coastal populations, corroborating the hypothesis that wide variation in reproductive parameters in the geographical distribution is probably related to the environmental characteristics where each population is inserted.

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13- Effects of two bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, Antioquine and Tetrandrine, compared to Verapamil in Rat Thoracic Aorta
Authors: José L. Martinez, Julio Benites, Harold Gomez, Silvia Vargas-Rueda, Raúl Vinet, Luisauris Jaimes and Claudio Laurido

The objective of this study was to compare Antioquine and Tetrandrine, with verapamil; knowing that the smooth muscle respond to KCl and relationships with calcium. The effects of Antioquine and Tetrandrine (both bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, isolated from Colombian plant Pseudoxandra sclerocarpa and Chinese medicinal plant Stephania tetrandra, respectively), were studied in adults Wistar rat aorta rings to the determination of contractility and compared with verapamil effect. Tetrandrine blocks the movement of calcium from both intracellular and extracellular deposits, with the greatest effect when aortas are in the presence of endothelium. The effect of Antioquine compared to verapamil is not significant.

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14- Changes in the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in Prosopis glandulosa treated with cadmium and copper
Authors: Daniel González-Mendoza, Rosalba Troncoso-Rojas, Tania Gonzalez-Soto, Onecimo Grimaldo-Juarez, Carlos Ceceña-Duran, Dagoberto Duran-Hernandez and Federico Gutierrez-Miceli

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the changes on the phenylalanine ammonia  lyase (PAL) activity, phenolic compounds accumulation and photochemical efficiency in leaves of P. glandulosa treated with Cd and Cu concentrations for  96 h under hydroponic conditions. Our results showed that the activation of phenylpropanoid pathway represents a source of nonenzymatic antioxidants that protect  P.  glandulosa against oxidative stress when exposed to cadmium and copper. Hence future studies are necessary to elucidate the participation of phenylpropanoid pathway in the reduction of metal toxicity in Prosopis species.

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15- Is there still room to explore cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase-producers in Brazilian biodiversity?
Authors: Andrea Maroclo, Samuel Rodrigues, Maycon Carvalho, Pedro Cravo,  José Daniel G. Vieira, Keili Souza and  Andre C. Amaral

Brazilian biomes are formed by a rich biodiversity that can be exploited for bioeconomy purposes. In this work, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) producing bacteria were identified and selected in different types of Brazilian soils. Based on the enzymatic index, 12 bacteria were selected and evaluated for their ability to produce CGTase using different starch sources. Yields that are more expressive were observed in the maize starch containing media. These bacteria were also characterized by sequencing of the 16S rRNA region and were classified as Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Gracilibacillus and Solibacillus.

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16- Drying and reduction in sensitivity to desiccation of seeds of Alibertia edulis: the influence of fruit ripening stage
Authors: Thais Cremon, Daiane M. Dresch, Silvana P.Q. Scalon and Tathiana E. Masetto 

Alibertia edulis is a tree native to Cerrado and the knowledge of its seeds physiological behavior  as for drying and storing can assist the sustainable use and conservation of the species. In our study, we found that the seeds originating from mid-ripe or fully ripe fruits exhibited better physiological performance than seeds originating from green fruits. The technique of slow drying of the seeds associated with the treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG) at a concentration of -0.73 MPa without abscisic acid (ABA) allows preserving the physiological quality of seeds of A. edulis for up to 180 days.

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17- ABA regulation of post-germination desiccation tolerance in wheat cultivars contrasting in drought tolerance
Authors: Satinder Kour and Vikramjit K. Zhawar

Post-germination desiccation tolerance (DT) was studied in two wheat cultivars PBW 644 (drought tolerant) and PBW 343 (drought susceptible). Improved post-germination DT of PBW 644 was related to ABA-regulated water loss program during desiccation,  to use metabolic arrest as survival strategy. PBW 343 appeared to be poor in water loss-program,  and thus overproduced oxidative damage. Both cultivars used vegetative stress tolerant pathways of ABA/ROS/NO for improving DT where PBW 644 showed more effective use of such pathways. ABA regulation of post-germination DT can be the mechanism of cross-tolerance as similarly observed under abiotic stresses (osmotic, salinity and heat stress).

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18- The characterization and comparison of exopolysaccharides from two benthic diatoms with different biofilm formation abilities
Authors: Cuili Jin, Zhaowei Yu,  Shuya Peng,  Ke Feng, Likui Zhang and Xiaojian Zhou

It is reporting the characterization and comparison of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from two benthic diatoms of Amphora sp. and Stauroneis sp., which have different biofilm formation abilities. For both diatoms, the common characteristics include that soluble-EPS was with high production and that the monosaccharide composition difference existed between planktonic and biofilm cells. Furthermore,  significant differences existed between the two diatoms in EPS productivity, dominant sugar, neutral sugar, and acidic sugar. The higher contents of uronic acids (especially Glc-A) in EPS of Amphora sp. was proposed to be  crucial for its  stronger biofilm formation ability than that of Stauroneis sp.

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19- Ontogenetic shape changes and sexual dimorphism in Aegla marginata (Bond-Buckup and Buckup, 1994)
Authors: Carolina L. Adam, Murilo Z. Marochi and Setuko Masunari

Our aim was to test sexual size and shape dimorphism on the carapace of Aegla marginata, also analyzing the variations in shape during ontogeny using geometric morphometrics. Sexual size dimorphism was visible among adults, with larger males, feature probably related to their reproductive strategy. Sexual shape dimorphism was found for both juveniles and adults: the posterior region of the carapace was wider in females, probably an advantage for egg incubation. The allometric trajectories of juveniles presented similar directions, diverging during the adult phase. The shape variation occurs gradually throughout development and reproductive adaptation is the main reason for the variation.

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20- Effect of herbicides in the oxidative stress in crop winter species
Authors: Carla Alves, Eduarda Costa, Jéssica R. Sofiatti, Cesar T. Forte, Fábio L. Winter, Cinthia M. Holz, Rosilene R. Kaizer and Leandro Galon

Herbicides can stay in the soil for a long period, affecting next crop or even the plants using as green manure. To evaluate the effects of herbicides fomesafen and sulfentrazone on antioxidant system in Avena sativa, Vicia sativa, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus, the plants were exposed to varying concentrations of these herbicides. A. sativa was the species that demonstrated low alterations on antioxidant system with the exposure to herbicide fomesafen and sulfentrazone. We can suggest that all the species in this study present a better response in defense of the oxidative stress generated by the herbicides.

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21- Insects galls of Pantanal areas in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: characterization and occurrence
Authors: Sharlene Ascendino and Valéria C. Maia

The Pantanal is the largest wetland in the world and a Unesco World Heritage Site. We investigated two Pantanal areas in Corumbá (MS) in search of insect galls. 76 morphotypes were found in 52 host plants. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae were the families with the greatest gall richness. Leaves were the most galled organ. Diptera (Cecidomyiidae) were the most frequent gallers. We found a rich associated fauna composed of Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Pseudoscorpionida, and Thysanoptera. Our data represent the first contribution to the knowledge of the associated fauna and expand the information about insect galls in the Pantanal.

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22- In vivo assessment of cyto/genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antifungal potential of Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe leaves and stems
Authors: Wendel C. de Sousa, Andressa T.S. Paz, Jamira D. Rocha, Edemilson C. da Conceição, Luciane M. de Almeida, Lee C. Chen, Leonardo L. Borges and Elisa Flávia F.L.C. Bailão

This work contributes to the investigation of the safety use of a Brazilian native plant, Costus spiralis (“cana-de-macaco”), by the population. We demonstrated the toxicity of C. spiralis tea against onion root cells. Moreover, we observed that C. spiralis stems tea enhanced the toxicity of a commercial drug against the onion cells. In contrast, C. spiralis leaves tea reduced the toxic effects caused by this drug. These discrepant results could be explained by the fact that leaves presented more phenol content and antioxidant potential than stems. In conclusion, empirical utilization of C. spiralis aqueous extracts should be avoided.

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23- Asilidae (Diptera) of two Atlantic Forest protected areas of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil
Authors: Danilo P. Moreira-Junior and Valéria C. Maia

From January 2013 to March 2014, 682 specimens of Asilidae (Diptera) were collected using Malaise traps in the Reserva Biológica União (REBIO), and Estação Ecológica Estadual de Guaxindiba (EEEG), both located in the State of Rio de Janeiro, each occupied by a different Atlantic forest physiognomy, dense ombrophilous forest and tableland forest, respectively. Distributed in 31 genera and 51 species, Leptogaster tropica (Curran 1934) was the most abundant species found (268). All records of genera and species are new in the REBIO and EEEG, wich contribute to the knowledge of the Asilidae geographic distribution and richness in the State.

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24- The exotic jumping snail Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900) (Gastropoda: Helicarionidae) in urban areas of the Upper-Paraná Atlantic Forest
Authors: Ariel A. Beltramino, Roberto E. Vogler, Alejandra Rumi, Leila B. Guzmán, Stella M. Martín and Juana G. Peso

The exotic land gastropod Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900), aka the jumping snail, was registered in Eldorado city, Misiones province, constituting the first documented record of that species in Argentina—and for all of South America as well. Identities of the individuals were confirmed through morphological examination, and by DNA analyses. Different size classes suggested that the species had successfully reproduced and become established in the locality. Ovachlamys fulgens is emphasized as being a serious pest to orchids. Control measures, preventive education, and surveillance are needed to prevent further spread of this snail.

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25- Pterobothrium crassicolle  parasitizing Paralichthys orbignyanus (Osteichthyes, Paralichthyidae) in Brazil
Authors:  Nilza N. Felizardo, Marcelo Knoff,  Jessica B. Diniz, Eduardo J.L. Torres,  Flávia A.A. Calixto and Sérgio C. São Clemente

Paralichthys orbignyanus specimens were obtained from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fishes were necropsied and cestode larvae were recovered from the abdominal cavity, mesentery, and serosas of the stomach, intestine, spleen, liver, kidney and gonads. Fish were parasitized with the trypanorhynch plerocerci, Pterobothrium crassicolle. The parasitism indices were calculated. These parasites were studied due to their importance during fish sanitary inspection, if one considers the harm that the repulsive aspect of infected fish may cause to consumers. This is the first record of  P. crassicolle plerocerci parasitizing P. orbignyanus.

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26- Distribution pattern of anurans from three mountain complexes in southeastern Brazil and their conservation implications
Authors: Matheus O. Neves, Elvis A. Pereira, José Luiz M.M. Sugai, Sabine B. da Rocha, Renato N. Feio and  Diego J. Santana

The mountain ranges in Southeastern Brazil have a strong appeal for biological conservation due to their endemism. Amphibians have expressive endemism in these areas, and based on species occurrence, in this research, we found interesting results about conservation status and biogeographic pattern of amphibians distribution in such mountains.

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27- Morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in rubber tree seeds
Authors:  Genaína A. de Souza,  Denise C.F.S. Dias, Thaline M. Pimenta, Amanda Á. Cardoso, Raquel M.O.  Pires, Antônio P. Alvarenga and  Edgard A.T.  Pícoli

The physical, physiological and biochemical changes during the development of rubber tree seeds are important markers of seed maturation. This is a recalcitrant species and understand its development better is essential for its propagation. Morphological, histochemical, anatomical and ultrastructural analyzes are excellent tools to follow the growing and maturation of the seeds of this species. From these analyzes in this study we can conclude the period in which the maturity of these seeds occurred. It is an important factor for decision making regarding the preparation of nurseries and seedlings that allow the maintenance of growth of the Rubber tree culture.

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28- All publishers are predatory – some are bigger than others
Author: Olavo B. Amaral

In this essay, Olavo Amaral comments on whether we should consider all scientific publishers as essentially predatory, as opposed to only those that profit from author charges with minimal peer review. Reflecting on a recent personal experience, the author questions the value aggregated by publishers to scientific articles, and discusses how current evaluation policies in Brazil perpetuate this predatory system. Based on this, he proposes possible solutions and addresses the barriers that must be overcome to free scientific knowledge from the grips of commercial publishers.

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29- Mineral supplementation stimulates the immune system and antioxidant responses of dairy cows and reduces somatic cell counts in milk
Authors: Amanda C. Warken, Leandro S. Lopes, Nathieli B. Bottari, Patrícia Glombowsky, Gabriela M. Galli, Vera M. Morsch, Maria Rosa C. Schetinger and Aleksandro S. da Silva

Studies have demonstrated the benefits of injectable minerals on animal health. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the use of subcutaneous mineral (magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium and copper) supplementation would affect immunological response, milk quality and composition of dairy cows in the postpartum period. The subcutaneous mineral supplementation reduced somatic cell counts in the milk. This result is related to the mineral complex since it was able to minimize the oxidative stress in the post-calving period, as well as to improve animal health due to a stimulation of the immune system and the antioxidant effect.

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30- Olfactory deficit as a result of clozapine withdrawal syndrome in an animal model of schizophrenia: preliminary results.
Authors:  Felipe P. Pacheco, Maurício  L. da Silva, Graziela Batista,  Witória Santos, Adalberto A. de Castro, Lara Canever and Alexandra I. Zugno

Clozapine is an antipsychotic that produces serious withdrawal effects in schizophrenic patients. Olfactory deficits are well known as part of negative symptoms, but it is not known whether antipsychotic use and/or withdrawal are implicated. It was tested clozapine withdrawal in association with schizophrenia models: Neonatal immune challenge by Polycitidilic-polyinosinic acid (polyI:C) and ketamine. The association of polyI:C, ketamine and clozapine disrupted Olfactory Discrimination, equating time in familiar and non-familiar compartments. PolyI:C plus ketamine increased crossings between compartments. It was produced, for the first time, an olfactory deficit induced by clozapine withdrawal in Wistar rats subjected to schizophrenia animal models.

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31- Antibacterial activity of Lamiaceae plant extracts in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant bacteria
Authors: Felipe V. de Assis, Flávia L. Siqueira, Isabela E. Gonçalves,  Rafael  P. Lacerda, Rafaela A. Nascimento, Sthéfane G. Araújo, Jéssica T. Andrade,  Karina M.S. Herrera, Luciana A.R.S. Lima and Jaqueline M.S. Ferreira

Considering that bacterial resistance has spread faster than the introduction of new compounds in clinical practice, and that plants of Lamiaceae family, commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine, are an important source of research on antimicrobial activity, this study evaluated its effect against clinical isolates of multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. All extracts were active for at least two bacterial species with MIC ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. In view of the clinical importance of the bacteria studied in this work, the promising results obtained encourage new studies to isolate compounds and studying them to better elucidate its antimicrobial effect.

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32- Do carcasses of lambs finished on commercial production systems meet market standards?
Authors: Raimundo N.B. Lôbo, Andrés Chaparro-Pinzón, Francisco V.O. Melo Neto, Lisiane D. Lima, Ana Sancha M. Batista and Ana Maria B.O. Lôbo

This study evaluated a lamb commercial finishing system using animals of undefined breed from production to slaughter. Performance, carcass traits, yield of commercial cuts, the quality and meat acceptance of different slaughter groups were analyzed, to evaluate whether this system provides the market with a standardized product. The groups were heterogeneous to 75% of the carcass traits evaluated, among them, hot and cold carcass weights, hot and cold carcass yields, carcass grade finishing and biological yield. It was concluded that the commercial finishing system with the use of undefined crossbred lambs does not produce carcass and cuts standardized to the market.

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33- Genetic diversity assessed by microsatellite markers in the amphicarpic species Trifolium polymorphum Poir.
Authors: Ionara F. Conterato, Maria Teresa Schifino-Wittmann, Divanilde Guerra, Miriam Büttow, Miguel Dall’Agnol and Nair Dahmer

Amphicarpy is a rare mode of reproduction where aerial and subterranean seeds are produced by the same individual. Trifolium polymorphum is an amphicarpic forage species that occur in natural grasslands in southern Brazil with limited information on the genetic diversity of natural populations. Microsatellite markers indicate a high genetic diversity of natural populations in T. polymorphum in all phytogeographic regions of Rio Grande do Sul even with the loss of large areas of these grasslands. This information on diversity can be used to plan future germplasm collection strategies for conservation purposes and also for the breeding of the species.

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34- The combination of compost or biochar with urea and NBPT can improve nitrogen-use efficiency in maize
Authors: Michelle A. Coelho, Roberta Fusconi, Liliane Pinheiro,  Ionara  C. Ramos and  Adão S. Ferreira

The addition of biochar or compost in the soil combined with urea and urease inhibitor can be a practical alternative to improve the crop production in tropical ecosystems. The results showed that the addition of compost or biochar did not alter the maize physiological response compared to the addition of mineral fertilizer used under the same conditions. However, a difference occurred in the maize nutritional responses to the compost and biochar amendments combined with urea and NBPT. The results of this survey showed that the combination of urea and NBPT with biochar or compost improved the nitrogen-use efficiency of maize.

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35- Sample size for estimating mean and coefficient of variation in species of crotalarias
Authors: Marcos Toebe, Letícia N. Machado, Francieli L. Tartaglia, Juliana  O. de Carvalho,  Cirineu T. Bandeira and Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

The objective was to determine the sample size necessary to estimate the mean and coefficient of variation in four-species of crotalarias. An experiment was carried out for each species (C. junceaC. spectabilisC. breviflora and C. ochroleuca). In 1,000 pods of each species were measured: mass of pod with and without seeds, length, width and height of pods, number and mass of seeds per pod, and mass of hundred seeds. The sample size was determined by resampling and varied among species and characters. Larger sample size is necessary to estimate the mean in relation of the coefficient of variation.

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36- Persistence of auxinic herbicides applied on pasture and toxicity for succeeding crops
Authors: Arnon H.C. Anésio, Márcia V. Santos, Raul R. Silveira, Evander A. Ferreira, José B. dos Santos and Leandro D. da Silva

Plants of cucumber, pigeon pea, and alfalfa were the species most susceptible to the auxinic herbicide residues in the soil. The lablab bean was the only one among the dicot evaluated that showed tolerance to the 2,4-D + picloram residual when cultivated in soils at 280 days after application (DAA). The plants of corn and sorghum showed lower chlorophyll content in soils with 2,4-D + picloram residual up to 80 DAA. However, these species were not affected by auxinic herbicide residues in the soil in relation to the height and biomass production of the plants.

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37- Productive potential of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) propagated by leaf buds
Authors: Reizaluamar J. Neves, Rafael P. Diniz and Eder J. de Oliveira

The agronomic performance of cassava obtained by leaf buds technique against stem cuttings in the field conditions was demonstrated. We have tested different varieties, origins of the plantlets and agrochemicals. The agrochemicals treatment of the plantlets promoted significant increases in traits. In general, there was a remarkable decrease in some agronomic traits when using leaf buds plantlets. However, the plantlets originating from leaf buds of the upper and middle parts were able to generate stem-like plants similar to stem-derived ones. In addition, the leaf buds multiplication may generate five times the number of plantlets in comparison with the conventional system.

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38- Growth, Yield and Grain Nutritional Quality in Three Brazilian Pearl Millets (Pennisetum americanum L.) with African or Indian origins
Authors: Leonardo O. Medici, Fabíola V. Gonçalves, Marcos Paulo S. da Fonseca, Salete A. Gaziola, Daiana Schmidt, Ricardo A. Azevedo and Carlos Pimentel

The manuscript contains information about grain nutritional properties of Brazilian millet cultivars with African and Indian origins, which is a crop widely encountered in tropical areas and also widely used. In this study, we are presenting recommendations to the best agricultural use as well as for plant breeding of three millet cultivars namely ENA1, ENA2 and BRS1501. These cultivars were evaluated for growth, yield and grain quality traits. Together, the results allow us to recommend BRS1501 for grain production and ENA1 and ENA2 for biomass production.

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39- Critical analyses when modeling tree biomass to ensure additivity of its components
Authors: Alexandre Behling, Sylvio Péllico Netto, Carlos Roberto Sanquetta, Ana Paula D. Corte, David L.R. Affleck, Aurélio L. Rodrigues and Marcos Behling

Biomass estimates of forest species is occupying nowadays increased relevance in forestry science, owing to its importance for the energy aspects and carbon fixation. This research was done with black wattle data, a species that has been playing an important role on forest production in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Two methodologies were applied to obtain indirect estimates of biomass, with nonlinear modeling, aiming to adjust equations that present better biological characteristics identity for this species, additivity of its components and greater efficiency of the estimators. The present research indicates the best technique for modeling biomass components.

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40- Nutritional Evaluation of Non-Conventional Vegetables in Brazil
Authors: Luis Felipe Lima e Silva, Douglas C. de Souza,  Luciane V. Resende, Rita de Cássia M.R. Nassur, Carolina Q. Samartini and Wilson M. Gonçalves

In the past, some native or introduced vegetables were widely consumed by the population, in Brazil. However, due to many factors, a lot of these vegetables are no longer consumed, besides they lost the scientific focus, and so, studies proving its nutritional properties are still incipient. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional compounds of interest present in ten vegetables known as non-conventional, in Brazil. All the species present nutritional compounds of interest in different levels. The consumption of these non-conventional vegetables could be presented as an excellent option for a source of nutritional compounds.

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41- Genetic transformation of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu by biolistics
Authors: Glaucia B. Cabral, Vera T.C. Carneiro, Ana Cristina M.M. Gomes,  Ana Luiza Lacerda, Adriana P. Martinelli and Diva M.A. Dusi

Apomixis and differences in ploidy between sexual and apomictic plants impairs crossbreeding in Brachiaria brizantha. Genetic transformation will help introduction of new traits and study of genes function. In this work, peeled seeds, embryos isolated from mature seeds, embryogenic calluses and embryogenic cell suspensions were evaluated as target for transformation via biolistics with gus and hptII genes under the control of the rice actin 1 promoter or the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter. All the tested explants showed proper transient gene expression after bombardment. Transformed plants regenerated from embryogenic calluses and cell suspensions and transgenes were detected.

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42- Morphophysiology, Phenotypic and Molecular Diversity of Auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceae)
Authors: Juliany M. França, Lucimara R. Venial, Eloá B. Costa, Edilson R.  Schmildt,  Omar Schmildt, Paula  M. Bernardes, Sandro D. Tatagiba, José C. Lopes, Marcia F.S. Ferreira  and Rodrigo S. Alexandre

The genetic diversity of the species Passiflora mucronata Lam. allowed to identify potential intraspecific genotypes, as well as the rhizogenesis induced or not by auxin and its subsequent physiological development, increasing the photosynthesis and the production of total dry mass. In this sense, genotype 5 was the most responsive in the absence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and genotypes 3, 8 and 9 in the presence of auxin. This research is critical for the future of Passiflora edulis Sims. passion fruit to consider that the species Pmucronata is identified as resistant or immune to the attack of fusarium, being able to be widely used as rootstock.

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43- Boron foliar aplication, branch girdling and plant growth regulators on yield and fruit quality of ‘Garber’ pear trees
Authors: Clevison L. Giacobbo, Luciano Picolotto, Mateus S. Pasa and José  Carlos Fachinello

The low fruit set is one of the main problems associated with pear growing in Southern Brazil, resulting in low yields and returns. In such conditions, fruit set may be improved by cultural practices and the use of plant growth regulators and nutrient solutions. We have investigated the effect of some of these methods in ‘Garber’ pear trees showing low fruit set. The plant growth regulator Promalin® increased fruit set, yield and fruit quality. Similarly, boron application showed positive results. Collectively, our results are promising, since the application of these substances might potentially increase yield of pear orchards in Brazil.

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44- Colored shade nets induced changes in growth, anatomy and essential oil of Pogostemon cablin
Authors: Aurislaine S. Ribeiro, Mariana S. Ribeiro,  Suzan K.V. Bertolucci,  Wanderley J.M. Bittencourt, Alexandre A. de Carvalho, Wesley N. Tostes,   Eduardo Alves  and José E.B.P. Pinto

Patchouli is one of the medicinal herbal plants that produces essential oils and is widely applied in perfumes. The work involves a study on influence of colored shade nets on the growth, anatomy and essential oil content, yield and chemical composition of Pogostemon cablin. The plants were cultivated under full sunlight, black, blue and red nets. The plants grown under red net have produced high dry biomass. Higher yield of oil was observed under red and blue shade net. It is possible to use colored shade nets to manipulate patchouli growth, as well as its essential oil production with several chemical compositions.

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45-Root distribution and its association with bean growth habit
Authors: Luis P.S. Velho, Rita C. de Melo,  João Pedro F. Bernardy, Sibila Grigolo,  Altamir F. Guidolin and Jefferson L.M. Coimbra

Studies on climate change predict the occurrence of water stress, associated with the limited mobility of nutrients in agricultural systems. The selection of genotypes with a deep and well distributed root system can minimize these problems. In the case of beans, there is an association between root distribution and growth habit. Bean genotypes with indeterminate growth habit have greater root distribution, compared to those of determinate habit, regardless of the environmental conditions. These genotypes are promising for use in crossing blocks, when the purpose is the selection of genetic constitutions adapted to environments with stress.

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46- Morphology of the Diaphragm Muscle in Southern Tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) and its Importance in Cases of Traumatic Hernia.
Authors: Érica F.S. Azevedo, Daniela R. Costa e Silva,  Tamires V.S. Natividade, Elane G. Giese, Ana Rita de Lima, Paola C. Soares and Érika Branco

Given the increase in clinical and surgical activities in wild animals and the scarce information on the morphophysiology of the tamandua’s diaphragm, an organ that suffers from great trauma in accidents, we aimed to characterize, size and determine the topography of the diaphragmatic muscle in Southern Tamandua. From our findings, we noted the similarity of the anatomical structures to the ones observed in other mammals, however, the wide extensions of connective and fat tissues in great proportions by the epimysium and the presence of type I collagen in the tendinous centre can justify a greater resistance of this region.  

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47- A Dual-mode model interpretation of CO2/CH4 permeability in polysulfone membranes at low pressures
Authors: Lucas D. Biondo, Jocelei Duarte, Mara Zeni and Marcelo Godinho

Asymmetric membrane of polysulfone (PSf) was synthesized by phase inversion method. The characterization was performed by CO2 and CH4 permeability and the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The dense-selective layer of PSf membrane presents regular thickness (about 5 µm), and it was not observed the formation of macrovoids in porous layer. The relationship between the pressure and the CO2 permeability (18.8 Barrer at 35°C and 2 bar pressure) was described adequately by Dual-mode model. The absence of CH4 permeability at 2 and 3 bar pressure, qualifies the PSf membrane for gases separation with high selectivity in this range.

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48- Monitoring structures with optical fibers: infiltration detection
Authors: Liliane R. Marconcin, Roberto D. Machado, Luiz A. de Lacerda and Markus Aufleger

In large structures, such as concrete face rockfill dams, the monitoring of water infiltrations is of particular interest in order to preserve the integrity of slab concrete and the stability of the rockfill. In this context, this paper verifies, experimentally, the applicability and the response of a distributed fiber optic monitoring system in the identification of infiltration spots and its potential sizes.

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49- Geomorphology-based unit hydrograph models for flood risk management: case study in Brazilian watersheds with contrasting physiographic characteristics
Authors: Samuel Beskow, Gabriela S. Nunes, Carlos R. de Mello, Tamara L. Caldeira,  Lloyd D. Norton, Alice A. Steinmetz, Marcelle M. Vargas and Léo F. Ávila

The main points of this manuscript were: i) not only physiographical characteristics, but also the rainfall pattern, exerted influence on the flood modelling; ii) the CIUH was the model that generated the most accurate surface runoff hydrographs, followed by the NIUH; these models had superiority in relation to the traditionally employed UHs (TUH and DUH) and to NIUHGEO and CIUHGEO; iii) the geomorphological versions of the CIUH and NIUH presented performances slightly superior when compared to the traditional and simpler models, however, they are not recommended to be applied as standard tool for flood modeling in the analyzed watersheds.

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50- Science communication podcasting in Brazil: the potential and challenges depicted by two podcasts
Authors: Marcos V. Dantas-Queiroz, Lia C.P. Wentzel and Luciano L. Queiroz

Podcasts have a high potential to reach a diverse audience. Using them to talk about science is a successful strategy for science communication. Despite the interest of the audience in scientific content and the increase of podcast media, there are few presented in Portuguese. Thus, we performed a case study using data from a survey and two Brazilian podcasts. We have noted an increase of listeners over the years and the interest in scientific content, but with some demographic overcomes. Nevertheless, independent initiatives can solve such difficulties, reaching different groups that would not have interest or access to the scientific knowledge before.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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