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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 89 (3 Suppl) - October 2017



With great pleasure I present the latest issue of the AABC! Here we have 50 papers of a great variety of fields, mostly concerning Biological Sciences (34). But you will also find contributions in Chemical, Biomedical, Health, Agrarian, Social and Earth Sciences.

Considering Biological Sciences, there is an interesting contribution showing a novel set of EPIC primers and their application in population analysis that can shed new light on enquiries regarding intraspecific diversity. Other studies published here address the effects of fungicide and algaecide extractions of plants, the use study of a recombinant yellow fever virus stably, the application of computerized microtomography in ovarian structures with great potential for the development of reproductive technologies, and on the biogeographic affinities of avian communities in the Amazon.

In Earth Sciences, there is a study that estimated the gas emissions of vehicles in Porto Alegre (Brazil), discussing problems regarding pollution in metropolitan areas. Another study focuses on estimates of reference evapotranspiration rate in a tropical area.

Regarding Agrarian Sciences, there is a stimulating paper that discusses the expansion of sugarcane cropping in the Cerrado biome, and ways to reduce the sodium content in margarine, a product widely used in our society.

Lastly, I would like to call your attention on studies that discuss the properties of a novel and effective dressing that could aid to heal wounds using nanocomposites, and the antifungal activity of a native Brazilian plant to the treatment of candidiasis.

Please keep in mind that since 2000, all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site and previous editions of the Newsletter are available at the ABC website.

We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner






1. A New Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor from Green Glycolsylation of Trachyloban-19-oic Acid by Mucor plumbeus
Authors: Gabriel F. dos Santos and Jacqueline A. Takahashi

A natural product of plant origin, trachyloban-19-oic acid was structurally biotransformed by the fungus Mucor plumbeus furnishing two products. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means as 7β-hydroxytrachyloban-19-oic acid and trachyloban-19-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester. The latter had not been previously reported in the literature. These two compounds, along with other trachylobane derivatives presented different levels of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Acetylcholinesterase is one of the main targets of drugs for Alzheimer´s disease. The glucopyranosyl derivative was the most active one, showing the key role of M. plumbeus as a sustainable and green tool to develop methodologies in the search for new drugs.

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2. Estimated evolution of total pollutant gas emissions associated with vehicle activity in the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre until 2030
Authors: Angel D. Chovert and Marcelo F. Alonso

Within this research, considering mainly the ozone precursor species and Carbon Monoxide and using the year 2001 as a base year, scenarios are obtained for vehicular emissions of pollutant gases in the MRPA until the year 2030. In addition, scenarios related to the evolution of the study region's vehicle fleet were estimated. The scenario analysis shows that the vehicle fleet will grow exponentially until 2030. It is also noted that vehicle emissions of CO, NOx, and THC decrease in the region. The decrease is caused mainly by the renewal of technology in new vehicles and the implementation of emission control.

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3. Three decades of reference evapotranspiration estimates for a tropical watershed in the eastern Amazon
Authors: Renato Silva Júnior, Everaldo B. de Souza, Alexandra L. Tavares, José A. Mota, Douglas B.S. Ferreira, Pedro W.M. Souza-Filho and Edson J.P. da Rocha

This study estimated the reference evapotranspiration rate (ETo) for the Itacaiúnas River Watershed (IRW), Eastern Amazonia, and measured the accuracy of eight empirical equations using monthly data (1980-2013). The methods Turc and Penman-Monteith presented the best results. Radiation and higher temperatures are the dominant drivers, while relative humidity and wind speed have a much smaller impact. The temporal and spatial variability presents strong seasonality, increases in the dry period and decreases in the humid period. Statistical analyzes indicate that there is no correlation of the residues between the seasons and that the physical parameters explain the variations of ETo.

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4. New azhdarchoid pterosaur (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidae) with an unusual lower jaw from the Portezuelo Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Neuquén Group, Patagonia, Argentina
Authors: Alexander W.A. Kellner and Jorge O. Calvo

Pterosaurs constitute an extinct group of reptiles that were the first vertebrates to develop powered flight. Despite known for over two centuries, their record is based on comparatively few deposits, limiting the knowledge about their diversity. Here we describe a new azhdarchoid pterosaur from Upper Cretaceous deposits of Patagonia. Named Argentinadraco barrealensis, the new species is based on a lower jaw that shows several unique features and leaded to the suggestion that this animal cut or plough through unconsolidated sediment in shallow waters to obtain its prey. This feeding mode is reported for the first time in a flying reptile.

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5. A polysaccharide fraction extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelial biomass inhibit Sarcoma 180 tumor
Authors: Elisabeth Wisbeck, Jean M. Facchini, Endi P. Alves, Marcia L.L. Silveira, Regina M.M. Gern, Jorge L. Ninow and Sandra A. Furlan

This manuscript provides information about how to improve the production of Pleurotus ostreatus mycelial biomass in liquid cultivation aiming to extract bioactive compounds from it. A polysaccharidic fraction extracted from this mycelial biomass was tested in mice against Sarcoma 180 and showed a reduction of 75% of tumor volume when administered in doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. The results reveal the potential of this fraction on cancer treatment.

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6. Effects of nutritional conditions on lipid production by cyanobacteria
Authors: Raquel S. Cordeiro, Izabela C.D. Vaz, Sérgia M.S. Magalhães and Francisco A.R. Barbosa

Our work provides information on lipid production by species of Microcystis under different controlled conditions. In our study, we tested different culture media to select the most efficient in obtaining high biomass; The ASM-1 medium was selected from which we modified the original concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate growth and production of lipids. This information will support the adoption of a poorer culture medium and, therefore, will reduce the costs of large-scale oil production. This type of basic study supplies information on the biotechnological capacity of these species in the production of biofuels that had not been investigated until the present.

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7. Effect of carbon source on production characterization and bioactivity of exopolysaccharide produced by Phellinus vaninii Ljup
Authors: Chunping  Xu, Jinwei Yu, Shanshan Zhao, Shungshung Wu, Peixin  He, Xuewei Jia, Yanqi Liu and Duobin Mao

The effect on different carbon source on production, chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Phellinus vaninii Ljup was investigated. Amongst carbon sources examined, glucose and sucrose were favorable for the mycelia growth, while the maximum EPS yield was achieved when sucrose was employed. The predominant carbohydrate compositions in EPSs identified were gluconic acid, glucose, mannose and galactose acid. EPSs molecule exist as nearly globular shape in aqueous solution. Sucrose was the best carbon source from the viewpoint of antioxidant activity due to the relatively high contents of galactose in the EPS with moderate molecular weight and polydispersity.

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8. Antigenotoxicity protection of Carapa guianensis oil against mitomycin C and cyclophosphamide in mouse bone marrow
Authors: Susy R. Lemes, Dwight A. Chaves, Nelson J. da Silva Júnior, Cristiene C. Carneiro, Lee Chen-Chen, Luciane M. de Almeida, Pablo J. Gonçalves and Paulo R. de Melo-Reis

Micronucleus testing of the bone marrow of mice found that Carapa guianensis oil exhibits an antigenotoxic effect at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg p.c., since there was a decline in the number of micronuclei in relation to cyclophosphamide and mitomycin. Additionally, a dose-dependent effect was observed in all the treatments applied. The most effective dose in terms of antigenotoxic activity was 500 mg/kg p.c., used in pretreatment. Our results suggest that andiroba oil shows significant phytotherapeutic potential, given that it is not genotoxic and displays antigenotoxic activity. 

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9. Cytotoxicity and bacterial membrane destabilization induced by Annona squamosa L. extracts
Authors: Nícolas C.C. Pinto, Jucélia B. Silva, Laura M. Menegati,  Maria Clara M.R. Guedes, Lucas B. Marques, Thiago P. da Silva, Rossana C.N. de Melo, Elaine M. de Souza-Fagundes, Marcos J. Salvador, Elita Scio and Rodrigo Luiz Fabri

This study aimed to further investigate the cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and several bacterial strains of methanol extracts of A. squamosa leaves and seedsand their mode of action. The alkaloids anonaine, asimilobine, corypalmine, liriodenine nornuciferine and reticuline were identified in extracts by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. This study reinforced that A. squamosa presents a remarkable phytomedicinal potential and revealed that its antimicrobial mechanism of action is related to bacterial membrane destabilization.

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10. Rocinela signata (Isopoda: Aegidae) parasitizing the gills of the spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Mullidae) in Northeastern Brazil
Authors: Lucas Cardoso, Maurício L. Martins, Jéssica E.S. de Aquíno Golzio, Carolina N.C. Bomfim, Ricardo L.M. de Oliveira, Leilane B.G. dos Santos and Ana Carolina F. Lacerda

Isopods that parasitize fishes usually show wide distribution and low host specificity. We recorded for the first time the isopod Rocinela signata parasitizing the spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus, a marine fish of great economic importance for the fishing community in the coast of Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. Parasite`s infection levels on the gills of P. maculatus(prevalence 8.3%, mean intensity 1.6±0.3 and mean abundance 0.1±0.3) were low compared to other studies with different host from geographically close locations. This species of parasite has been reported from a wide variety of fish hosts, not only in the Atlantic, but also in the Pacific Ocean. The spotted goatfish presents economic importance in Brazil, and there is no information if the isopods may affect its health.

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11. Description of fourth instar larva and pupa of Atrichopogon delpontei Cavalieri and Chiossone (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia
Authors: Pablo I. Marino, Gustavo R. Spinelli, Ruth Ferreira-Keppler and Maria M. Ronderos

We describe the hitherto unknown fourth instar larva and pupa of the biting midge Atrichopogon delpontei, from material collected from the margins of the shallowest portions of two streams in the Brazilian states Rondônia and Piauí. In one site the immatures were found in deciduous leaves accumulated on rocks, occupying the larvae the submerged side of the leaves and the pupae the upper side above the water. In the other site the larvae were collected from submerged rocks and the pupae above the water, on rocks exposed to strong sunlight. The collected immatures were reared to adults in the laboratory.

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12. Development of EPIC-PCR Markers for Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae-Perciformes) and their Potential Applicability in Population Analyses
Authors: Raimundo da Silva, Danillo Silva, Ivana Veneza, Iracilda Sampaio, Horacio Schneider and Grazielle Gomes

A novel set of eight EPIC primers were developed for amplification in Lutjanus purpureus and assayed in five other marine teleosts including three lutjanids, one scianid and one anablepid. Most of the genomic regions used in this study presented genetic diversity indexes equal or greater than the intragenic regions commonly used in population genetic studies. Moreover, six out of eight markers used here showed cross-amplification with other taxa. Thus, the primers described here may be used to elucidate questions at the intraspecific level for a large number of taxa.

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13. Potential effects of fungicide and algaecide extracts of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae) on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata and on the oomycete Pythium
Authors: Giseli S. Rocha, Reginaldo S. Matsumoto, Ana Teresa Lombardi and Maria Inês S. Lima

Anonna glabra is a semi-deciduous plant adapted to flooded environments; it has antimicrobial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Uncontrolled growth of phytoplankton can decrease the water quality  and the oomycete Pythium causes severe diseases in many plant species. Use of synthetic chemicals cause food and environmental contamination due to their residues and slow degradation. We analyzed the effects of acetone extracts of A. glabra leaves, on microalgae and on the oomycete and the inhibitory concentration of exposure to extracts are comparable to those obtained with commercial fungicides and herbicides used in aquatic ecosystems, highlighting the importance of searching bioactive compounds from plants.

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14. Detection, purification and characterization of a lectin from freshwater green algae Spirogyra spp.
Authors: Antônia S. de Oliveira, Cláudia F. Lóssio, Anne J. Rangel, Maria G.Q. Martins, Fernando E.P. do Nascimento,  Maria L.L. de Andrade, Benildo S. Cavada, Sírleis R. Lacerda and Kyria S. do Nascimento

The most relevant point of the work is the purification of a new lectin from a green microalga native of Northeast Brazil.

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15. Construction and characterization of a recombinant yellow fever virus stably expressing Gaussia luciferase
Authors: Telissa C. Kassar, Tereza Magalhães, José V.J.S. Júnior, Amanda G.O. Carvalho, Andréa N.M.R. da Silva, Sabrina R.A. Queiroz, Giovani R. Bertani and Laura H.V.G. Gil

The use of recombinant viruses expressing reporter genes has been of great importance as a research tool on molecular virology. Within this purpose, the present work reports the construction of a recombinant yellow fever virus stably expressing the Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) reporter gene, with high sensitivity. It was observed the direct association between GLuc expression and viral replication, indicating that the measurement of GLuc activity can be used as indicative of viral replication in several studies such as those that aim to understand the virus-host interaction and to investigate new antiviral strategies.

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16. Evaluation of ovarian structures using computerized microtomography
Authors: Fernanda Paulini, Sacha B. Chaves, José Luiz J.P. Rôlo, Ricardo B. de  Azevedo and Carolina M. Lucci

Clear understanding of the ovarian structures is important in supporting advances in reproductive technologies. Ovaries of seven different species were used to explore and characterize the ovarian structure under computerized microtomography (microCT). It was possible to distinguish regions, visualize the distribution of blood vessels, observe corpus luteum and antral follicles, and visualize oocytes inside antral follicles. This is the first report using microCT to evaluate ovarian structures and the results were validated by histology. This technique revealed great potential, and it opens prospects for the use of computerized tomography in studies of development of ovarian structures in small animals’ models.

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17. Assessment of the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity and phytochemical screening of aqueous extracts of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (ADOXACEAE)
Authors: Marília Tedesco, Andrielle W. Kuhn, Viviane Dal-Souto Frescura, Aline A. Boligon, Margareth L. Athayde, Solange B. Tedesco and Antonio C.F. da Silva

The present investigation aimed to evaluate the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of Sambucus australis on the cell cycle of Allium cepa, as well as to determine the phenolic compounds present in them. The extracts were prepared from inflorescences and leaves of S. australis, remaining in contact with the bulbs of A. cepa  for 24 hours. Root tip cells of A. cepa were analyzed and phenolic compounds of extracts determined by high performance liquid chromatography. We conclude that the extracts evaluated have antiproliferative and antigenotoxic potential, being constituted by flavonoids and phenolic acids.

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18. Aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes
Authors: Anderson A. Simão, Tamara R. Marques, Silvana Marcussi and Angelita D. Corrêa

Obesity is a public health problem due to the incidence and severity of its effects. The digestive enzymes inhibition by natural compounds may represent an adjuvant to treatment of obesity. It was demonstrated in this study, the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds of the aqueous extracts of leaves from Psidium guajava (Paluma, Pedro Sato and Século XXI) on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes. The data obtained suggested the presence of interactions between phenolic compounds and digestive enzymes and indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use in the treatment of obesity.

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19 .Avian Communities in the Amazonian Cangas Vegetation: Biogeographic Affinities, Components of Beta-Diversity and Conservation
Authors: Sérgio H. Borges, Marcos P.D. Santos, Leonardo M.S. Soares and Antonita S. da Silva

Cangas is a vegetation type with tiny distribution within the Amazon basin. We sample birds in isolated patches of cangas in the Serra dos Carajás, southeastern Brazilian Amazon. A rich avifauna of more than 200 bird species is found in this vegetation. Species composition of smaller and poorness patches is a subset of the larger and richer ones. Bird diversity is affected by the area of patches, but not by its degree of isolation. Cangas vegetation growing over soils rich in iron, and mineral exploitation of this unique environment represents a complex conservation challenge. To conserve the avifauna of cangas is necessary: i) strict protection of carefully chosen patches of cangas, ii) investigation of how bird use the vegetation recovered by mining companies, and iii) analysis of genetic and morphological variation of selected species to understand the taxonomic distinction of the cangas avifauna.

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20. Evidence of the Presence of Thyroid Hormones in Achatina fulica Snails LS
Authors: Danilo Lustrino, Alba C.M. Silva, Iracema G. Araujo, Victor M. Tunholi, Vinícius M. Tunholi-Alves, Rosane N. Castro, Denise P. Carvalho, Jairo Pinheiro and Michelle P. Marassi

Thyroid hormones (THs) play important role in body development and metabolism of both vertebrates and invertebrates, however the presence and the mechanisms of synthesis of THs in snails are poorly known. Here, it was demonstrated that THs are present in snail Achatina fulica. Analysis of HTs in A. fulica hemolymph showed the presence of T2 and T3 apart from T4, but rT3 was not detected. Hemolymph T4 was decreased in starved snails suggesting its participation in the control of metabolism of A. fulica. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show the presence of THs in land snails.

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21. Reproductive biology of the Green Ground Snake Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) in Subtropical Brazil
Authors: Fernando M. Quintela, Wiliam C. Marques and Daniel Loebmann

The analysis of Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus from the subtropical Brazilian coast revealed a seasonal pattern of reproduction for females (secondary vitellogenesis from late winter to early autumn, eggs during spring and early summer) and an accentuated decrease in males testes in winter. Erythrolamprus p. sublineatus is also less prolific when compared to the other subspecies with tropical distribution investigated so far. Considering the non-seasonal patterns and higher fecundity of the tropical subspecies, it is presumed that the environmental climatic factor may have a greater role than phylogenetic relationships in shaping E. p.

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22. Morphological affinities of Homo naledi with other Plio-Pleistocene hominins: a phenetic approach
Authors: Walter A. Neves, Danilo V. Bernardo and Ivan Pantaleoni

An international team led by Lee Berger presented new important findings of fossil hominins from South Africa, interpreting these findings as a new species, Homo naledi. Under their interpretation, naledi's morphology is characterized by a mosaic of primitive and derived traits, an example of late survival of the primitive traits in human lineage. In our research we used the metric data provided by Berger and colleagues to perform a multivariate comparison of craniodental morphology of naledi and its contemporary hominins. Our phenetic approach suggests that Homo naledi is a South African version of Homo habilis, and not a new species.

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23. Oxidative stress responses of juvenile tambaqui Colossoma macropomum after short-term anesthesia with benzocaine and MS-222
Authors: Giovanna R. Stringhetta, Luis A.L. Barbas, Lucas C. Maltez, Luís A. Sampaio, José M. Monserrat and Luciano O. Garcia

The study aimed to evaluate the effects of benzocaine and tricaine methanesulfonate on biochemical parameters of juvenile tambaqui tissues. Fish were anesthetized with benzocaine or tricaine. After anesthetic induction 10 fish/anesthetic were euthanized after 3/12/24 hours post-anesthesia and tissue samplings were performed. ACAP in the gills of benzocaine treatment increased after 12h. The liver showed a reduction in the ACAP of tricaine treatment after 12 hours. Both treatments showed an increase of ACAP at 2h. The activity of the GST enzyme increased in the gills for treatments benzocaine and tricaine after 3/12h. Liver showed increased GST activity. Lipid damage in gills and brain decreased after 24h. Results demonstrate that anesthetics didn't cause oxidative damage in juvenile tambaqui.

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24. Floristic-functional variation of tree component along an altitudinal gradient in araucaria forest areas, in Southern Brazil
Authors: Vanessa F. Soboleski, Pedro Higuchi, Ana Carolina da Silva, Mariele A.F. da Silva, Amanda S. Nunes, Rodineli Loebens, Karine de Souza, Jheniffer Ferrari, Carla L. Lima and Ricardo V. Kilca

Studies that seek to understand vegetation variation as a function of altitude are important tools for forecasting climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we provide information about how Araucaria Forest can change in function of an altitudinal gradient in Southern Brazil. In summary, we observed a high floristic turnover and significant variation for leaf traits, basic wood density, maximum potential height, dispersal guild and deciduousness.

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25. Citizen science participation in research in the environmental sciences: key factors related to projects’ success and longevity
Authors: Davi G.F., Cunha, Jonatas F. Marques, Juliana C. de Resende, Patrícia B. de Falco, Chrislaine M. de Souza and Steven A. Loiselle

In Brazil, limited information is available about the potential of citizen science and volunteers’ participation as a tool for public involvement in scientific research. In our paper, we performed a systematic analysis to show general characteristics and challenges of citizen science, which is an emerging field allowing the participation of non-experts in ecosystem management and monitoring. We identified key factors based on important elements related to projects’ success. We compared different projects around the globe across disciplinary areas and identified key matches between project proponents and participants, project goals and local priorities, participant profiles and engagement, scientific methods and funding.

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26. Melipona mondury produces a geopropolis with antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities
Authors: Tássia L.A. dos Santos, Raphael F. Queiroz, Alexandra C.H.F. Sawaya, Begoña Gimenez-Cassina Lopez, Milena B.P. Soares, Daniel P. Bezerra, Ana Carolina B.C. Rodrigues, Vanderlúcia F. de Paula and Ana Maria Waldschmidt

Geopropolis is a special product from stingless bees containing soil. Several pharmacological properties have been described for different geopropolis, but there are no previous studies on Melipona mondury geopropolis. Here, we investigated the antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of M. mondury geopropolis, and its chemical profile. The butanolic fraction had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and more potent antioxidant properties in all assays. Furthermore, it presented antibacterial effects against all strains at low concentrations, especially S. aureus. The hexane fraction had the highest antiproliferative potential. Preliminary chemical analysis indicates the presence of terpenes and gallic acid in the geopropolis.

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27. Growth of the silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in a subtropical estuary with some insights concerning the weight-length relationship
Authors: Barbara M. de Carvalho, José Ricardo S. Barradas, Nelson F. Fontoura and Henry L. Spach

The Brazilian silverside fish (Atherinella brasiliensis) has the widest geographic distribution among all American silversides, being very common along estuarine areas. Although not captured by commercial fishery, the species attract sportive anglers with just a reed, line and hook (without bait), usually fishing from bridges over estuarine channels. The article “Growth of the silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in a subtropical estuary with some insights concerning the weight-length relationship” describes several aspects of the species growth pattern in the Estuarine Complex of Paranaguá (Paraná, Brazil). In addition, considerations regarding the general methodology for adjusting weight-length relationships are presented.

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28. Copper II - Polar Amino Acid Complexes - Toxicity to bacteria and larvae of Aedes aegypti
Authors: Thiago A.D. Rodrigues, Eduardo J. de Arruda, Magda F. Fernandes, Claudio T. de Carvalho, Alessandra R. Lima and Isaías Cabrini

Despite decades of control, Ae. aegypti has shown resilience, flexibility, adaptability and vector competence for transmission of multiple diseases: dengue, Zika virus, Chikungunya fever, urban yellow fever. The controlling of vector population is the most efficient strategy for reducing the incidence of vector diseases. The synthesis of metallo-insecticides was performed using polar amino acids and Cu (II) as multifunctional/comprehensive larvicide to control breeding/microbiota, food chain and reduction of attractiveness of these Culicidae to breeding sites. Glutamic, aspartic acids and Cu (II) were used due to their neurotransmitter activity, toxicity, solubility and induction of continuous metabolic and/or cellular damages by oxidative stress from the digestive system.

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29. Gill parasites of fish from two estuaries in northeastern Brazil: new hosts and geographical records
Authors: Jéssica E.S.A. Golzio, Júlia M. Falkenberg, Rayssa C.G. Praxedes, Anderson S. Coutinho, Mylena K. Laurindo, André Pessanha, Rubens R. Madi, Joana Patrício, Ana L. Vendel, Geza T.R. Souza, Cláudia M. Melo and Ana Carolina F. Lacerda

Parasites are important components of communities and constitute great part of the biological diversity found in ecosystems. The present study performed a survey on gill parasites of fish from two tropical estuaries located in northeastern Brazil: Paraíba and Mamanguape rivers. Of the 882 examined fish, belonging to four species, 145 were parasitized by at least one species, including the groups Monogenea, Digenea, Nematoda, Copepoda and Isopoda. This is the first study on fish parasites in estuaries in the State of Paraíba, showing new geographical records and hosts for these environments.

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30. Phenological characterization and temperature requirements of Annona squamosa L. in the Brazilian semiarid region
Authors: Débora S. Mendes, Marlon C.T. Pereira, Silvia Niersche, Joseilton F. Silva, Josiele S. Rocha, Athos H. Mendes, Helisson R.A. Xavier and Rayane C. dos Santos

Independently of pruning time, the Annona squamosa L. phenological stages in Brazilian semiarid is composed by:  bud development, leaf development, shoot/branch development, inflorescence emergence, flowering, fruit development, fruit maturity and  senescence and the beginning of dormancy. However, the pruning time affects the number of days and temperature requirements necessary to complete each phenological sub-stage. Sugar-apple trees pruned in autumn require higher temperatures and present longer stage durations.

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31. Diversity of parasites in wild Astronotus ocellatus (Perciformes, Cichlidae), an ornamental and food fish in Brazil
Authors:  Marcos Tavares-Dias and Ligia Rigôr Neves

Astronotus ocellatus, commonly known as Oscar or apaiari, is a species of native cichlid from the Amazon river basin, including Brazil, Peru, Colombia and French Guiana. A study on parasites of this wild fish across Brazil showed that they are infected by 22 species of parasites among protozoans, monogeneans, nematodes, digeneans, acanthocephalans, cestode, crustaceans and leeches. However, there is a dominance of monogenean species and a greatest diversity of crustacean species. The study also suggests that this parasitic diversity is probably underestimated due to differences in species richness of parasites for different hydrographic basins from Brazil.

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32. Parasitic communities of Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock, 1828) as indicators of environmental impact
Authors: Karina G.A. Dias, Carlos A. Alves, Reinaldo J. da Silva, Vanessa D. Abdallah and Rodney K. de Azevedo

Areas under the influence of different environmental impacts may cause changes in the population dynamics of the fish fauna, affecting directly the parasite populations. This study analyzed the parasitic communities of the Hoplosternum litorale, collected in two locations of the Peixe River with different environmental characteristics. The results of the physicochemical analysis of the water showed that the mouth of the Peixe River can be considered an area that suffers more from anthropogenic actions, which coincides with the parasitological data, since in the Lagoa da Cabeça de Boi, the richness of species and the abundance of the heteroxenous parasites are superior.

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33. Antimicrobial and enzymatic activity of anemophilous fungi of a public university in Brazil
Authors: Laureana V. Sobral, Kelly N. Melo, Cleciana M. Souza, Sílvio F. Silva, Gilvania L.R. Silva, Andressa L.F. Silva, Katharine A.A. Wanderley, Idjane S. liveira and Roberta Cruz

This manuscript approaches, in an unprecedented way, test of antibacterial activity of extracts of fungi isolated from the air, as well as the evaluation of the production of enzymes with industrial interest by these airborne fungi. This field of application of fungi is still incipient and therefore presents little theoretical basis for discussion.

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34. Morphology of the axial skeleton of seven bat genera (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)
Authors: Pablo J. Gaudioso, M. Mónica Díaz and Rubén M. Barquez

Detailed descriptions and comparisons of the axial skeleton of seven species of bats belonging to five subfamilies of Phyllostomidae of different trophic guilds are presented.  Previous descriptions of five of the studied species were not known; for vampires only fragmentary information was available so the description of these species was completed here. The axial skeleton has characters that allow grouping of the species phylogenetically of the same subfamily, and by their feeding habits.  Also, there are characters that associate species from different subfamilies with different types of diet or ways to obtain food.

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35. Purification and characterization of a thermostable alkaline cellulase produced by Bacillus licheniformis 380 isolated from compost  
Authors:  Évilin G. de Marco, Karina Heck, Emerson T. Martos and Sueli Teresinha Van Der Sand

Strain  isolated during composting process, was capable of producing alkalophilic CMCase at  high temperature (50°C) in the presence of different substrates.The strain was identified as Bacillus licheniformis.These cellulases may have potential application in biotechnology industries, as well as bioaugmentation processes, accelerating the degradation of organic matter,especially in edible mushroom culture, degrading cellulosic wastes during primary degradation phase.

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36. Species richness and composition of epiphytic bryophytes in flooded forests of Caxiuanã National Forest, Eastern Amazon, Brazil
Authors: Gabriela R. Cerqueira, Anna Luiza Ilkiu-Borges and Leandro V. Ferreira

This manuscript introduces a comparative approach between the bryophyte assemblages present in flooded forests (várzea and igapó) in periods with major and minor precipitation. The results of the study indicated greater richness of bryophytes in forests of igapó and did not confirm the influence of the seasonality directly in the assemblages of bryophytes analyzed, nevertheless, they indicate distinct compositions between the areas. The information in this study, together with others from “Programa de Estudos de Longa Duração (PELD - Caxiuanã)” are extremely relevant to understand the structuring of different plants communities, especially in humid areas, for which little is known.

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37. Elemental composition of vegetables cultivated over coal-mining waste
Authors: Jairo J. Zocche, Paula Rohr, Adriani P. Damiani, Daniela D. Leffa, Miriam C. Martins, Caroline M. Zocche, Karina O. Teixeira, Gabriela D. Borges, Maiellen M. de Jesus, Carla E.I. dos Santos, Johnny F. Dias and Vanessa M. de Andrade

Elemental composition of the liver in mice subjected to one-time or chronic consumption of vegetables cultivated in coal mining area and in a certified organic farm was assessed. Concentrations of Mg, Si, S and Ca of mice subjected to one-time consumption were higher in the coal-mining area, while concentrations of Si, P, K, Fe, Zn and Cu were increased after chronic consumption of vegetable from the coal-mining area. Our data suggest that people consuming vegetables grown over coal wastes may ingest significant amounts of chemical elements that pose a risk to health.

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38. Peculiar anatomical traits, high durability, and potential ornamental use of Cyclanthaceae as fresh foliage
Authors: Maria Camila Medina, Saúl E. Hoyos-Gómez, Diego Demarco and Dino Tuberquia

Many wild plants are used as green foliage worldwide but there is no study evaluating the morphological and anatomical aspects related to such use. We studied three foliar anatomical features of Cyclanthaceae species aiming to explain the high durability of these leaves. This is a way to harness the morphological characteristics naturally present in a species, evaluating its ornamental potential usage without any genetic alteration or other modification. This work allows to predict the potential use of a species as ornamental foliage through the study of anatomical characters.

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39. Surface, thermal and hemocompatible properties of novel single stage electrospun nanocomposites comprising polyurethane blended with bio oilTM
Authors:  Manikandan Ayyar, Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Rajasekar Rathinasamy, Ahmad Zahran Khudzari and Navaneetha Pandiyaraj Krishnasamy

Wound healing is a complex process which requires proper assist material for regeneration. Traditionally available wound dressings could not restore the wound healing completely. This eventually leads to the search for novel and effective dressings. This paper promulgates a novel nanocomposites comprising polyurethane blended with bio oil as an agent in overcoming this complication. The developed nanocomposite dressing renders promising physicochemical and blood compatible nature making it a new putative candidate for wound healing application.

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40. In vitro antifungal activity of Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão against human vaginal Candida species
Authors: Fernando Alves de Oliveira, Vanessa Correa Rorato, Adriana Araújo de Almeida-Apolonio, Allan Belarmino Rodrigues, Aline Lima de Barros, Andréia Sangalli, Arielle Cristina Arena, Jonas da Silva Mota, Alexéia Barufatti Grisolia and Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira

Myracrodruon urundeuva is a plant native to Brazil, which is used by the indigenous population for the treatment of candidiasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of extract against human vaginal Candida species and evaluate the possible toxicological activities of M. urundeuva. The ethanol bark extracts showed best activity against Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis (4-512 µg/mL). Hemolytic activity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity were not observed, but demonstrated cytotoxic and toxic properties. M. urundeuva bark extracts showed potential for the treatment of vaginal infections caused Candida species, as a topical.

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41. Evaluation in vivo of biocompatibility of differents resin-modified cements for bonding orthodontic bands
Authors: Janaina A. Mesquita, Rogério Lacerda-Santos, Gêisa A.M., Sampaio, Gustavo P. Godoy, Cassiano F.W. Nonaka and Pollianna M. Alves

The focus of this study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no difference between the in vivo biocompatibility of resin-modified glass ionomer cements. The cements (Crosslink, RMO, Transbond Plus) were inserted into subcutaneous tissue of rats and evaluated as to intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate; reaction of multinucleated giant cells; edema; necrosis; granulation reaction; young fibroblasts and collagenization. The hypothesis was rejected. The Crosslink cement provided good tissue response, since it demonstrated a lower level of inflammatory infiltrate and higher degree of collagenization, while RMO demonstrated the lowest level of biocompatibility.

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42. Use of performance indicators to assess the solid waste management of health services
Mayara C. Assis, Vanielle A.P. Gomes, Wagner C. Balista and Rodrigo R. de Freitas

Modern society faces serious challenges, including the complexity of environmental problems. The environmental impact of the disposal of solid materials from health services integrates more complex issues with consequences of nosocomial infections. Thus, management has become an urgent need, especially when we do not see the use of management of performance indicators in health settings. To this, Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP) and SWOT analysis prioritize indicators such as potential improvement in the health care waste management process (WHS). The results showed that employee performance indicators training strategies have the greatest potential to assist in improving WHS knowledge, followed by regulations associated with procedures and importance of biosafety.

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43. Antibiotic activity of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a Traditional Medicinal Plant
Fernanda R. Nascimento, Kamylla R.S. Albuquerque, Marcos R. Oliveira, Virginia R. Pizziolo, Beatriz G. Brasileiro, Gaspar Diaz and Marisa A.N. Diaz

Plectranthus ornatus Codd., the traditional medicinal plant showed antibiotic activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.4 mg.mL-1 and 100 percent inhibition of biofilm against strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with infections by mastitis. Based on these results, a herbal soap was produced as an alternative to control this disease, thus indicating the great potential of this plant for use as an excipient, preparing herbal antibacterial soaps as an alternative veterinary medicine to control bovine mastitis infections in small Brazilian farms.

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44. Adding palm oil to the diet of sheep alters fatty acids profile on yogurt: Benefits to consumers
Authors: Anderson E. Bianchi, Aleksandro S. da Silva, Angelisa H. Biazus, Neila S.P.S. Richards, Luis G. Pellegrini, Matheus D. Baldissera, Vicente P. Macedo and André L.F. da Silveira

Oil supplementation of dairy sheep is an important approach to alter milk lipid profile. This study, the inclusion of palm oil in the diet of dairy sheep modulates the fatty acid content in yogurt, reducing the saturated fatty acids levels and increasing the monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results are promising, and indicate that palm oil can be considered an important energetic source to ruminal feeding, inhibiting the production of short and medium-chain fatty acids, as well as increasing the production of long-chain fatty acids that may exert beneficial effects to human health.

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45. Effect of Syzygium cumini leaves on laying hens performance and egg quality
Authors: Ednardo R. Freitas, Danilo R. Fernandes, Davyd H. Souza, Francisco D.T.  Dantas, Rebeca C. Santos, Gilson B. Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo B. Cruz, Nádia M. Braz, Lorena F. Câmara, Germano A.J. Nascimento and Pedro H. Watanabe

Syzygium cumini, popularly known as "jambolão", "azeitona preta" or "guapê", is a plant from Myrtaceae family known by the presence of phenolic and carotenoids compounds, mainly found in the leaves. From the inclusion of the Syzygium cumini leaves in laying hen diet, it was noticed an increase in yolk color and a reduction in lipid oxidation of eggs, indicating the nutraceutical application of the plant, as well as the extension of these antioxidation effects to the eggs.

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46. Where is sugarcane cropping expanding in the brazilian cerrado, and why? A case study
Authors: Murilo R. de Arruda, Ken E. Giller and Maja Slingerland

It is said that the fast sugarcane cropped area expansion in recent years, particularly towards the Cerrado, occurs over degraded pastures, not threatening food production. In order to verify this assumption, we investigated where and why farmers shift to sugarcane, as a case study.  Our results show that from 30,408 ha under sugarcane surveyed, 45.7% replaced pastures, 31% replaced areas of pastures rotated with soybean and maize, and 23.3% replaced areas exclusively cropped with soybean or maize. In addition, sugarcane cropping expansion was related with large farms, lower risk perceived by farmers, and higher its profitability compared to other agricultural activities.

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47. Crambe (crambe abyssinica) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) protein concentrates: production methods and nutritional properties for use in fish feed
Authors: Naglezi M. Lovatto, Fernanda R. Goulart, Bruno B. Loureiro, Caroline S. Speroni, Ana B.B. Bender, Sandro J. Giacomini, João Radünz Neto and Leila P. da Silva

Protein concentration techniques (isoelectric pH (pHi), acid pH and alkaline pH) in crambe meal and sunflower meal were tested in order to enhance their use in feeding monogastric animals, especially fish. For both products, pHi extraction was more efficient to yield and crude protein content, with high levels of lysine and methionine. The protein concentration through this methodology proved to be efficient for the tested products, since it also caused reduction of the total phenolic compounds content. Thus, with increasing protein content and reduction of antinutritional factors, the plants protein quality is improve, for the fish feed.

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48. Sodium reduction in margarine using NaCl substitutes
Authors: Carla Gonçalves, Jéssica Rodrigues, Heraldo Júnior, João Carneiro, Tassyana Freire and Luísa Freire

Margarine is a popular product that is used in several preparations, but it includes high sodium content that has been associated with chronic diseases. Thus, this  study aimed to produce reduced sodium margarines using a salt mixture consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate at different concentrations. The mixture used was a good alternative for preparing low sodium margarine because the low sodium formulations feature equal salinity and do not produce strange or bad tastes. Furthermore, it may be possible to prepare margarines with up to 47.4% less sodium and that are acceptable to consumers.

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49. Genetic parameters in female reproductive traits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Authors: Grazyella M. Yoshida, Carlos A.L. de Oliveira, Natalí M. Kunita, Gabriel S. Rizzato and Ricardo P. Ribeiro

This is the first study that estimated genetic parameters for reproduction traits in Nile tilapia improved under Brazilian environment conditions. The animals were evaluated for reproductive traits in three different places (two places in Paraná state and one in Minas Gerais state) and the Bayesian method was used to estimate the genetic parameters. We found that the heritability estimates ranged from moderate to high for the traits studied. The Spearman correlation ranged less for the places when the animals were evaluated in a common hapa and with a proportion of female to male higher than 2.6.  In this way, we suggested that reproductive traits may be listed as new traits used as selection criteria with potential genetic progress for Nile tilapia.

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50. Scientometric indicators for Brazilian research on High Energy Physics, 1983-2013
Authors: Gonzalo R. Alvarez, Samile A.S. Vanz and Marcia C. Barbosa

Brazilian articles on High Energy Physics (HEP) account for 3% of total HEP research worldwide and the sharp rise in the scientific activity between 2009 and 2013 may have resulted from the consolidation of graduate programs, the increase of the funding and of the international collaboration as well as the implementation of the Rede Nacional de Física de Altas Energias (RENAFAE). The collaboration patterns confirm the presence of Brazil in multinational experiments, which may also explain the prevalence of foreign citing documents. The scientometric indicators suggested scientific maturity in the community due to its long history of experimental research.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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