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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 89 (2) - June 2017


In this third issue of the year, the AABC presents a total of 45 manuscripts, with Biological Sciences having most of the contributions (22), followed by Agrarian Sciences (13). There are also manuscripts in other fields such as Earth, Health, Chemistry, and Engineering Sciences.

As usual, it is hard to select highlights. Among those that have called my attention there is an interesting one on methodology to establish the scientific importance of impact structures in order to select the most significant ones for protection as part of the geological cultural heritage. In the same lines, another study discusses the applicability of geomechanical classifications to assess strength properties of rocks.

Being quite in evidence right now is the issue of climatic changes. As known, corals play a critical role in assessing this crucial question. One study published here discusses the population dynamics of coral species from Rocas Atoll and how it is currently being affected.

In Biological Sciences, one interesting paper is about the breeding biology of an endangered species in the Amazon region. There is also a study that establishes the larvicidal potential of extracts and fractions of several plants on A. aegypti larvae - an important issue regarding health security.




Lastly, I would like to point out to a contribution that focuses on thermodynamic theory of the normal shock in compressible fluid flow in pipes, which leads to the discussion of a new theorem, and another study that evaluates the cytogenotoxicity of rice crop water after application of a specific fungicide.

I also recommend you to take a look at the editorial that addresses an important subject that directly affects authors nowadays: predatory journals!

Please keep in mind that since 2000 all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site and previous editions of the Newsletter are available at the ABC website.
We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner






1 - Special metabolites isolated from Urochloa humidicola (Poaceae)
Authors: Débora R. de Oliveira, Delci D. Nepomuceno, Rosane N. Castro, Raimundo Braz Filho and Mário G. de Carvalho

Plants of Urochloa (Brachiaria) genus are of interest in zootechnics, veterinary medicine and agronomy, since they serve directly as source of food for animals. However, some species of this genus have secondary or special metabolites, which have been studied mainly due to the promotion of animal diseases, or by the allelopathic effect on different species of plants. Currently, there is a demand for natural substances with effect on animal performance and crop yields. The works of these different areas depend on the knowledge of the structures of the metabolites produced by these plant species, and thus, being, however, the great contribution of this work.

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2 - Reassessment and Relationships of †Scutatuspinosus itapagipensis (Teleostei, Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes) from the Neocomian of Recôncavo Basin, Northeastern Brazil
Authors: Francisco J. de Figueiredo and Douglas R.M. Ribeiro

The anatomy of the ancient clupeomorph fish †Scutatuspinosus itapagipensis is reassessed and its relationships within †Ellimmichthyiformes explored. According to the majority rule consensus obtained, †Scutatuspinosus is positioned within Paraclupeinae together with †Ezkutuberezi, Ellimma, Ellimmichthys and †Paraclupea. Its minimum age and placement within †paraclupeids indicate an early history for †Ellimmichthyiformes older than it was thought to be, and supporting a biogeographical hypothesis of corridor from China to Brazil during Lower Cretaceous.

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3 - Terrestrial impact structures as geoheritage: an assessment method of their scientific value and its application to Brazil
Authors: Joana P. Sánchez and José B.R. Brilha

Terrestrial impact structures are geological and geomorphological features with particular importance to understand the history and evolution of the planet. Impact structures with higher scientific value should be considered as geological heritage but in many countries these features are under threat, essentially due to anthropic factors. In order to select the most important impact structures to be properly conserved and managed, this paper proposes a quantitative assessment method of the scientific value of these structures. The eight Brazilian structures were used to test this method that has the potential to be applied to any geological context in any country.

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4 - Are the dinosauromorph femora from the Upper Triassic of Hayden Quarry (New Mexico) three stages in a growth series of a single taxon?
Author: Rodrigo T. Müller

A study suggested the inclusion of holotype of Dromomeron romeri (femur) and paratype (femur) and referred (femora pelvis and tail) specimens of Tawa hallae (both dinosauromorphs from the Upper Triassic of Chinle Formation, USA) in an ontogenetic series of a single species.  However, as observed here, the high disparity between Dromomeron romeri and Tawa hallae, lack of traits shared solely between the three femora, and a suite of traits shared between Dromomeron romeri and Dromomeron gigas, precludes the inclusion of the three femora from Hayden Quarry in a growth series of a single taxon.

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5 - Carbonate Buildups of the Pernambuco Basin, NE Brazil
Authors: Bruno V. Buarque, José A. Barbosa, Jefferson T.C. Oliveira, José R.G. Magalhães and Osvaldo J. Correia Filho

Identification of carbonate buildups formed during the post-rift stage of the marginal Pernambuco Basin reveals that its offshore region, which is dominated by the Pernambuco Plateau, presented environmental conditions that allowed the formation of large carbonate accumulations. Large isolated carbonate platforms and reefal buildups were identified through the analysis of two-dimensional seismic surveys, over regional paleotopographic highs. The interpretation suggests that the carbonate buildups are positioned in two main successions related to the post-rift phase. Our findings show that the tectonic framework of the plateau controlled the formation of these structures.

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6 - Applicability of geomechanical classifications for estimation of strength properties in Brazilian rock masses
Authors: Tatiana B. Santos, Milene S. Lana, Allan E.M. Santos and Larissa R.C. Silveira

This paper presents a study about applicability of geomechanical classifications in three different Brazilian rock masses, a strong rock mass and two soft rock masses. In the research, four geomechanical classification systems were used: Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Rock Mass Quality (Q), Geological Strength Index (GSI) and the Rock Mass Index (RMi). Then, strength properties of the rock masses were estimated. The estimated strength properties were validated trough stability analysis.

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7 - Population dynamics of Siderastrea stellata Verrill, 1868 from Rocas Atoll, RN: implications for predicted climate change impacts at the only South Atlantic atoll
Authors: Barbara R. Pinheiro, Natan S. Pereira, Paula G.F. Agostinho and Manuel J.F. Montes

Shading new lights on the population dynamics of the dominant coral species from Rocas Atoll, and its susceptibility to the growing effects of global warming were the goals of our research. We investigated different phases of Siderastrea stellata specimens such as reproduction, early development, size-frequency and growth. Observations indicated that Rocas’ conservation status may contribute to the maintenance and recovery potential of this population. However, coral recruitment results showed impacts probably due to thermal stress events. Since climate change consequences are predicted to increase (unless we reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere), Rocas Atoll’s coral populations is in danger.

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8 - The peculiar breeding biology of the Amazonian frog Allobates subfolionidificans (Aromobatidae)
Authors: Jesus R.D. Souza, Igor L. Kaefer and Albertina P. Lima

We describe the reproductive behavior of a vulnerable and endemic leaf-litter frog, Allobates subfolionidificans, from the state of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia. The courtship, mating and oviposition behaviors of this species are complex and involve vocal and tactile interactions. This study details the use of lower surfaces of leaves for calling, mating and parental care by this species. Although common among tree frogs possessing well-developed adhesive discs at the finger and toe tips that configure an adaptation to arboreality, this behavior is surprising within Dendrobatoidea (poison frogs), a clade mostly composed of terrestrial, ground-dwelling inhabitants of the forest floor.

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9 - Screening of plant extracts and fractions on Aedes aegypti larvae found in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (linnaeus, 1762) (culicidae)
Authors: Karla R. de Andrade Porto, Priscilla R. Motti, Mami Yano, Antonia R. Roel, Claudia A.L. Cardoso and Rosemary Matias

The constant use of chemical insecticides for Aedes aegypti control has caused resistance in the mosquito populations. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the larvicidal potential of extracts and fractions of plants on A. aegypti larvae. The analysis included sixty-one extracts and twenty five fractions of fifty botanical species of Cerrado, Brazil. The toxicity index in descending order with LC50 for the most active of the extracts selected were ethanol extract of Ormosea arborea seeds and ethanol extracts of leaves such as Piper hispidum, Solanum variabile, O. arboreaTurnera umifolia and Piper hispidum, the  up efficiency.

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10 - Abundance of the reef-building Petaloconchus varians (Gastropoda: Vermetidae) on intertidal rocky shores at Ilha Grande Bay, southeastern Brazil
Authors: André Breves, Maria Teresa M. de Széchy, Helena P. Lavrado and Andrea O.R. Junqueira

Petaloconchus varians was recorded in 25 rocky shores at Ilha Grande Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). This vermetid occurred in rocky shores with different slopes and degrees of wave exposition (very sheltered to exposed). Clusters of individuals constructed extensive reefs along the middle intertidal zone, creating a wide belt (38 cm to 2 m). The density of P. varians and the weight of the reefs varied from 620 to 2,559 ind.100 cm-2 and from 100 to 1,500 g.100 cm-2, respectively. This study suggests that P. varians is becoming the dominant species in the intertidal zone of the area.

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11 - N deposition affects allelopathic potential of Amaranthus retroflexus with different distribution regions
Authors: Congyan Wang, Jun Liu and Jiawei Zhou

This report presents data on the potential of electroacupuncture applied to PC6 point (Neyguan) in the modulation of the activity of brain nucleus related to the stress response. The activity of the brain nucleus, evaluated through Fos-immunoreactivity, was higher after immobilization stress and it was completely or partially abolished by electroacupuncture. It was concluded that this kind of stimulus is able to modulate the stress response in this animal model. However, the specificity of PC6 is relative since the acupuncture at some points in the rat tail triggered similar but not identical response.

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12 - Psychotria viridis: Chemical constituents from leaves and biological properties
Authors: Débora B.S. Soares, Lucienir P. Duarte, André D. Cavalcanti, Fernando C. Silva, Ariadne D. Braga, Miriam T.P. Lopes, Jacqueline A. Takahashi and Sidney A. Vieira-Filho

Psychotria viridis (Rubiaceae) is a species used in the preparation of ayahuasca drink, in association with Banisteriopsis caapi Morton. The drink was first used by shamans and healers of the Amazonia, who practiced traditional medicine based on plant extracts. In this study we investigated the chemical constituents, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and cytotoxic activities. The results indicated the potential of this species for the biological activities investigated.

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13 - Climatically-mediated landcover change: impacts on Brazilian territory
Authors: Marina Zanin, Geiziane Tessarolo, Nathália Machado and Ana Luisa M. Albernaz

In the face of climate change threats, governments are drawing attention to policies for mitigating its effects on biodiversity. Our study evidence the impacts of climate change on Brazilian biomes distribution, and draw attention to the necessity for management and attenuation plans to guarantee the future of Brazilian biodiversity. Among the results, we highlight expansion of the open vegetation distribution and the contraction of closed forests. Therefore, Caatinga and Cerrado biomes seem to be the most resistant to climate change impacts while Amazon and Atlantic forest are under considerable risk of range contraction.

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14 - Parasite infracommunities of Leporinus friderici: A comparison of three tributaries of the Jurumirim Reservoir in southeastern Brazil
Authors: Fábio H. Yamada, Marcela F. Bongiovani, Priscilla O.F. Yamada and Reinaldo J. da Silva

Studies have been undertaken on the effects of dams on aquatic wildlife, in particular fish assemblages. But how do dams affect the parasitic fauna of such fish? The present study evaluated the parasite communities of Leporinus friderici (Characiformes, Anostomidae) in three upstream tributaries under the influence of the Jurumirim Dam, Upper Paranapanema River, southeastern, Brazil. The results highlights that dams promote and facilitate the dispersal of organisms between localities, and therefore the spatial homogenization of parasite communities. Overall, the results suggest that fish parasite assemblages can provide suitable data for evaluating biotic homogenization caused by dams.

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15 - Mitochondria-rich cells changes induced by nitrite exposure in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818)
Authors: Oscar T.F. da Costa, Cleverson A. Ramos, Wallice P. Duncan, Juliana L.V. Lameiras and Marisa N. Fernandes

The Amazonian fish, Colossoma macropomum, was exposed to nitrite and gills were analyzed for changes in morphometry and mitochondria-rich cells condition. Our results indicated that filament and lamellae epithelium were thinner. Mitochondria-rich cells were few and with less apical surface area exposed to the environment. Necrosis was the prevalent cell death mechanism. Ultrastructure analysis revealed changes in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. The changes observed in the gill indicate that the cellular structures involved in the process of energy production become severely damaged by exposure to nitrite indicating irreversible damage conducting to cell death.

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16 - Global patterns of aboveground carbon stock and sequestration in mangroves
Authors: Gustavo C.D. Estrada and Mário L.G. Soares

Based on an extensive review and meta-analysis, this study has demonstrated that, at the global/regional scale, carbon stock in the aboveground biomass of mangroves increases towards the equator and is dependent (up to 34% of the variance) on climatic parameters, primarily temperature of the coldest periods, isothermality, annual precipitation, and water balance. At the local scale, physico-chemical factors and age were shown to have a high contribution to the carbon stock variance: up to 70%. This study provides information to the forecast of the effects of climate change on this ecosystem service.

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17 - Use of GC/MS to identify chemical constituents and cytotoxic activity of the leaves of Phoradendron mucronatum and Phoradendron microphyllum (Viscaceae)
Authors: Isla V.G.A. Bastos, Tatiane B. de Oliveira, Maria D. Rodrigues, Gardênia C.G. Militão, Teresinha G. da Silva, Izabel C.C. Turatti, Norberto P. Lopes and Sebastião J. de Melo

The objective of this study was to identify the main chemical constituents by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate cytotoxic activity against human tumour cells lines (NCI-H292 -human pulmonar mucoepidermoid carcinoma; MCF-7 -human breast adenocarcinoma and HEp-2 - epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx) by the MTT method (bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide)) of the extracts hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform and ethyl acetate from leaves of Phoradendron microphyllum and Phoradendron mucronatum. Analysis of the extracts by GC/MS identified several compounds such as alkaloids, diterpenes, triterpenes and steroids and also presented cytotoxic activity against the tested strains.

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18 - Effects of electroacupuncture on stress and anxiety-related responses in rats
Authors: Ricardo M. Bassetto, Tatiana Wscieklica, Kathlein C.P. Pouza, Daniela Ortolani, Milena B. Viana, Isabel C. Cespedes and Regina C. Spadari

This report presents data on the potential of electroacupuncture applied to PC6 point (Neiguan) in the modulation of the activity of brain nucleus related to the stress response. The activity of the brain nucleus, evaluated through Fos-immunoreactivity, was higher after immobilization stress and it was completely or partially abolished by electroacupuncture. It was concluded that this kind of stimulus is able to modulate the stress response in this animal model. However, the specificity of PC6 is relative since the acupuncture at some points in the rat tail triggered similar but not identical response.

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19 - Population dynamics of Rimapenaeus constrictus (Stimpson, 1874) (Penaeoidea) on the southeastern Brazilian coast: implications for shrimp fishing management from a 5-year study on a bycatch species
Authors: Ana Elisa B. Lopes, Raphael C. Grabowski, Joyce R. Garcia, Adilson Fransozo, Rogério C. da Costa, Kátia A.N. Hiroki and Antonio L. Castilho

This study is a pioneer in analyzing the growth and population parameters of Rimapenaeus constrictus, a barely damaged species from the shrimp fishing bycatch in the western Atlantic, in a wide spatiotemporal scale. We analyzed 5,812 individuals to their size class frequency distribution, growth, longevity and sex ratio, monthly, in the northern littoral of São Paulo state, from Jan/1998 to Jun/2003. We observed 24 growth cohorts, from which the majority consisted of younger individuals, excluded from the fisheries closure period. Therefore, we strongly recommend the fisheries closure period to be changed, aiming to protect this species’ recruitment period.

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20 - Compatibility of Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens in growth promotion of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.)
Authors: Andhare A. Prasad and Subramanian Babu

Biofertilizer and biocontrol bacteria are applied to crop plants either individually or in combinations. However, the compatibility of the bacteria towards better performance is largely unknown. Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens improved growth of tap and lateral roots of groundnut, respectively. Plant growth promotion in terms of root and shoot length in groundnut was significantly better, when these bacteria were used in combination than when applied separately. Soil application was found to be the best method than seed treatment, seedling root dip and foliar spray.

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21 - Development of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of the golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, Mytilidae) in environmental samples
Authors: Marcio R. Pie, Patrícia R. Ströher, André O. Agostinis, Ricardo Belmonte-Lopes, Michelle Z. Tadra-Sfeir and Antonio Ostrensky

The golden mussel is among the most devastating invasive species in freshwater habitats worldwide, leading to severe environmental disturbances and economic losses. Therefore, management efforts would be greatly improved by methods that efficiently detect and quantify the abundance of the golden mussel in freshwater, particularly in early stages of colonization. In this study we developed a genetic protocol that allows for the detection of minute amounts of DNA of the golden mussel (as little as 0.225 pg). This assay represents an important contribution to surveillance methods, as well as to optimize field efforts to manage populations of the golden mussel.

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22 - Occurrence of Dendrocephalus brasiliensis Pesta, 1921 (Crustacea, Anostraca) in the Caras river, southern Ceara, Brazil
Authors: Francisco R.V. Freita, Isis C. de Lucena, Damares R. Alencar, Israel J.M. Santos and Allysson P. Pinheiro

The Dendrocephalus brasiliensis  is outstanding among the crustacean, due to its occurrence in several environments, tolerate the most diverse and extreme conditions, like the semiarid typified by the occurrence of  marking periods of droughts and floods that form the lakes and temporary puddles, forming its main habitat. This work amplifies the biogeographic information related to the occurrence of these “anostráceo”, given that there are no continuous records of its appearance in the Brazilian States. Even though it’s one of the most used and studied “anostráceo” in aquaculture as living food or frozen for fish and shrimps.

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23 - Synthesis and evaluation of arylamidine derivatives for new antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities
Authors: Zenaide S. Monte, Amanda M. Silva, Gláucia M.S. Lima, Teresinha G. da Silva, Karla M.R. Marques, Maria D. Rodrigues, Emerson P.S. Falcão and Sebastião J. Melo

A series of arylamidines 3a-j was designed, synthesized and investigated for antimicrobial activity. Structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR and a 2D spectroscopic study was performed. A preliminary screening of the antimicrobial tests clearly showed that three out of ten arylamidines effective against the gram-negative bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteric; and the yeast, Candida albicans, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were determined.  Compounds were also investigated for their low cytotoxic effects on tested cell lines, were effective against HL-60 and HEp-2 cells with IC50 value (2µg/mL) and low normal cells toxicity.

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24 - Ecology of the non-native snail Sinotaia cf quadrata (Caenogastropoda: Viviparidae). A study in a lowland stream of South America with different water qualities
Authors: Ana Clara Ferreira, Estefanía L. Paz, Alejandra Rumi, Carolina Ocon, Paula Altieri and Alberto Rodrigues Capítulo

Sinotaia quadrata is a snail native from Asia recorded for the first time in 2009 in Argentina, which was also found in 2015 in a lowland stream with different water qualities. Our aims were to contribute to the knowledge of its population ecology and to compare the individuals from the two locations anatomically. The differences observed in snails from the two geographical regions might be attributed to environmental differences. We conclude that this species is tolerant to a wide range of environmental variables which, along with its high fecundity and morphological plasticity, could allow this species to colonize neighbor streams.

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25 - Hepatic toxicity caused by PLGA-microspheres containing usnic acid from the lichen Cladonia substellata (AHTI) during pregnancy in Wistar rats
Authors: Ketsia S.N. Marinho, Erivaldo A. Antonio, Camilla V.N.S. Silva, Keila T. da Silva, Valéria W. Teixeira, Francisco C.A. de Aguiar Júnior, Katharine R.P. dos Santos, Nicácio H. da Silva and Noemia P.S. Santos

This study evaluated the toxicity of usnic acid, from Cladonia substellata, encapsulated into PLGA-microspheres in female Wistar rats during pregnancy and in their offspring. The administration of encapsulated usnic acid did not cause fetal malformations, as expected from a teratogenic compound. However, it was able to provoke damage in the hepatic tissue of the animals that received the microspheres. Those damages were in much smaller proportions than those already verified for the usnic acid in suspension form, which proves that the encapsulation of the usnic acid reduces the toxic effects caused by its exposure.

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26 - Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a Brazilian subtropical mangrove
Authors: Mariana M. de Sousa and Karine D. Colpo

Bromeliads can be biological indicators of ecosystem health. This study evaluated the diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a subtropical mangrove. Seven bromeliad species of the genera Tillandsia and Vriesea were recorded. Laguncularia racemosa was the preferred host tree. Atmospheric bromeliads were predominant near the waterline, whereas tank bromeliads were more frequent in the interior of the mangrove. The distribution of bromeliads was more related to the host species than to the distance from the waterline. Bromeliad abundance increased with tree size. This kind of study produces necessary knowledge for an adequate management of sensitive ecosystems as mangroves.

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27 - Reduction of the DNA damages, Hepatoprotective Effect and Antioxidant Potential of the Coconut Water, ascorbic and Caffeic Acids in Oxidative Stress Mediated by Ethanol
Authors: Vanderson S. Bispo, Lucas S. Dantas, Adriano B. Chaves Filho, Isabella F.D. Pinto, Railmara P. da Silva, Felipe A.M. Otsuka, Rodrigo B. Santos, Aline C. Santos, Danielle J. Trindade and Humberto R. Matos

This study aims to identify the main phenol compounds using a new HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS method, to evaluate some oxidative stress parameters and the hepatoprotective action of green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids on the liver and serum of rats treated with ethanol. The results showed five polyphenols in the lyophilized coconut water. Activity of the serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) was reduced in all groups: coconut water, ascorbic acid, and caffeic acid, when compared with the ethanol group. In liver, the DNA analysis show a decrease of oxidized bases compared to ethanol group. Decreasing the oxidative stress induced by ethanol metabolism.

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28 - Antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of Myrciaria floribunda
Authors: Luis A.C. Tietbohl, Adriana P. Oliveira, Ricardo S. Esteves, Ricardo D.D.G. Albuquerque, Diogo Folly, Francisco P. Machado, Arthur L. Corrêa, Marcelo G. Santos, Ana L.G. Ruiz and Leandro Rocha

Myrciaria floribunda of Myrtaceae family is a native Brazilian plant species. Chemical assays of the ethyl acetate extract from the leaves revealed a high amount of total phenolic compounds (0.23 g gallic acid equivalents/g extract), tannin (13%) and flavonoids (24%). The extract exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI) between 69.70 and 172.10µg/mL. The cell line MCF-7 (breast cancer) was more sensitive to M. floribunda while normal cells were less growth-inhibited. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities may be correlated with the special metabolites (tannins and flavonoids) once these compounds are known as antioxidants and anticancer agents.

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29 - A new species of Tereancistrum (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the gills of three Leporinus species (Characiformes, Anostomidae) and a revised description of Tereancistrum parvus
Authors: Aline C. Zago, Fábio H. Yamada, Lidiane Franceschini, Marcela F. Bongiovani, Priscilla O.F. Yamada and Reinaldo J. da Silva

The present study describes a new species of monogenoid, Tereancistrum flabellum n. sp. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae), from the gills of the anostomid fishes Leporinus friderici, Leporinus amblyrhynchus and Leporinus elongatus from two freshwater ecosystems in the southeast of Brazil. Tereancistrum flabellum n. sp. is the first record of a dactylogyrid monogenoid from L. amblyrhynchus.  The description of Tereancistrum parvus is also emended to correct and complement previous descriptions and the species is reported for the first time in Schizodon nasutus.

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30 - The preventive effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on locomotor and acetylcholinesterase activity in an animal model of schizophrenia induced by ketamine
Authors: Louyse S. Damazio, Flávia R. Silveira, Lara Canever, Adalberto A. de Castro, Jadne M. Estrela, Josiane Budni and Alexandra I. Zugno

Studies show that schizophrenic patients have deficiencies of vitamins, particularly ascorbic acid (AA), which has an potential antioxidant effect. Our research depicts a significant increase in the locomotor activity in an animal model of schizophrenia (SZ) induced by ketamine (ket). AA prevented the hyperlocomotion in these animals. Ket also showed an increase of AchE activity within the prefrontal cortex and striatum prevented by AA. Our data indicates an neuroprotective action for AA in alterations induced by Ket in an animal model of SZ, suggesting that this vitamin may be an important adjuvant approach in this psychiatric disorder.

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31 - Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Salmonella spp. isolated from foods and clinical samples in Brazil
Authors: Andrea L. Miranda, Soraia M. Cordeiro, Joice N. Reis, Lucas G. Cardoso and Alaíse G. Guimarães

Antimicrobial profile and genotype of Salmonella spp. isolated from foods and clinical samples was determined in Brazil. Antimicrobial susceptibility data showed that 36% of Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested and three main genotypes comprised isolates recovered from foods and clinical samples. The clonal group A clustered S. Enteritidis resistant to one antibiotic, clonal group B, clustered S. Infantis full susceptible isolates and clonal group C, clustered S. Schwarzengrund with multidrug resistance. This shows that it is a potential transmission of Salmonella from food sources to humans instituting a risk to public health.

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32 - Screening of melon genotypes for resistance to vegetable leafminer and your  phenotypic correlations with colorimetry
Authors: Frederico I.C. de Oliveira, Leonardo B.C. Fiege, Elaine F. Celin, Renato Innecco, Glauber H.S. Nunes and Fernando A.S. de Aragão

Phytosanitary problems have been real hindrance to the melon crop, especially the leaf miner (Liriomyza sp.). Although the existence of resistant genotypes had already been reported, the main obstacle to obtain commercial varieties resistant to insect by means of plant breeding programs is the unavailability of proven resistance sources. Looking for it, this study was carried out objecting to select new sources of resistance to leaf miner in the melon germplasm in order to enable gene introgression of resistance to superior melon genotypes of breeding program of the Embrapa. It is important to emphasize that this task has already been achieved and two melon strains with high resistance are available.

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33 - Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions
Authors: Vandimilli A. Lima, Fernanda V. Pacheco, Rafaella P. Avelar, Ivan C.A. Alvarenga, José Eduardo B.P. Pinto and Amauri A. de Alvarenga

Piper hispidinervum C. DC. produces essential oil with a variety of medicinal properties. The light influences growth and production of secondary components in medicinal plants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the growth, photosynthetic pigments content and essential oil production of P. hispidinervum under different light conditions (full sun, 30% and 50% of shading, red and blue nets). The results showed that both 50% shading and blue and red nets stimulated growth. Nevertheless, the cultivation under full sun promoted the greatest essential oil production. This way, full sun is indicated for the productive chain of the species.

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34 - Pathogenic Vibrio species isolated from estuarine environments (Ceará, Brazil) – antimicrobial resistance and virulence potential profiles
Authors: Francisca G.R. de Menezes, Marina T.T. Rodriguez, Fátima C.T. de Carvalho, Rosa H. Rebouças, Renata A. Costa, Oscarina V. de Sousa, Ernesto Hofer and Regine H.S.F. Vieira

Vibrio from 4 estuaries in Ceará (Brazil) (Pacoti, Choró, Pirangi, Jaguaribe) was isolated; its susceptibility to antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture was evaluated, followed by an investigation of its virulence factors to human health. A dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics was used for the identification. 19 species were isolated, with Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Choró) and V. alginolyticus (Pacoti) appearing in a larger number. Strains were resistant to: penicillin (82%), ampicillin (54%), cephalothin (7%), aztreonan (1%), gentamicin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone (0.5%). Five pathogenic species were selected in order to verify virulence factors with alarming results, some related to diseases in human beings; others, in aquatic organisms.

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35 - Diameter distribution in a Brazilian tropical dry forest domain: predictions for the stand and species
Authors: Robson B. de Lima, Lina Bufalino, Francisco T. Alves Júnior, José A.A. da Silva and Rinaldo L.C. Ferreira

The objective of this study was to investigate the diametric structure of a Brazilian tropical dry forest and to select suitable continuous distributions through statistical tools for settlement and for the main species. With the diameter data were tested for continuous functions. In summary, the generalization of the functions selected for the species show that the development of individual models is necessary. The results obtained by the Burr function indicate good flexibility to describe the diametric structure of the stand, M. ophthalmocentra and B. cheilantha. For P. bracteosa, A. pyrifolium and M. urundeuva best fit was obtained with the log-normal function.

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36 - Characterization and influence of subtropical persimmon cultivars on juice and jelly characteristics
Authors: Paula N. Curi, Bruna S. Tavares, Aline B. Almeida, Rafael Pio, Moacir Pasqual, Pedro M. Peche and Vanessa R. Souza

This work aimed to identify which persimmon cultivar (Rama Forte, Mel, Guiombo and Taubaté) is best suited for processing in the form of juice and jelly. The persimmon cultivars studied showed a great difference between them, which resulted in juices and jellies with different characteristics. Based on the sensory acceptance and productivity/adaptability of the persimmon culture in Brazil, the most appropriate persimmon cultivars for processing are Rama Forte and Guiombo. In this study it was found that the consumer prefers a more acidic persimmon juice and a less firm or softer, less sweet, clearer and more intense yellow color persimmon jelly.

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37 - Beef Tallow and Emulsifier in Growing-Finishing Pig Diets
Authors: Kassia M. Santos, Pedro H. Watanabe, Ednardo R. Freitas, Rafael C. Nepomuceno, Paula J.D. Oliveira, Virgínia M. Lima, Bárbara B.V. Rodrigues, Germano A.J. do Nascimento and Luiz E. de Carvalho

The high cost of soybean oil motivates the search for dietary alternative lipid sources, as well as the use of additives that potentiate the digestion and absorption of fatty acids, even reducing the energy level of diets for pigs. Thus, considering the lowest cost, beef tallow can be a substitute for soybean oil for growing and finishing pigs, and the combined use of this feedstuff with emulsifier enables a reduction in the energy level of diet.

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38 - Sugars levels of four sugarcane genotypes in different stem portions during the maturation phase
Authors: Laís F.M. Pereira, Vilma M. Ferreira, Nelson G. de Oliveira, Pedro L.V.S. Sarmento, Laurício Endres and Iêdo Teodoro

The manuscript entitled “Sugars levels of four sugarcane genotypes in different stem portions during the maturation phase”, involves important physiological aspects of the agroindustrial production of sugarcane, since it establishes maturation curves for irrigated sugarcane genotypes, shows the influence of environmental conditions on the sugar content and differences of sugar content among different stem portions, as well identify the best time for harvest to optimize the quality of the raw material and demonstrates productive potential of sugarcane genotypes based on maturation curves.

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39 - A new approach to feed frequency studies and protein intake regulation in juvenile pirarucu
Authors: Bruno O. de Mattos, Eduardo C.T. Nascimento Filho, Aline A. Santos, Kayck A. Barreto, Francisco J. Sánchez-Vázquez and Rodrigo Fortes-Silva

The use of an automatic feeder system activated by the fish could allow the animals to feed at their preferred time and hence reduces waste and improve the food intake. Studies that consider the fish as a guide in designing diets can provide data on mechanisms of nutrient intake regulation to development of aquafeeds for new species with potential for aquaculture. In this research, we can observe the feeding behavior, the self-feeders being operated efficiently, the feeding patterns, including time and number of meals, differed between day and night and, finally, the fish showed a target active for protein intake.

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40 - Cytogenotoxicity of rice crop water after application of the tricyclazole fungicide
Authors: Alana C.D. Wandscheer, Enio Marchesan, Solange B. Tedesco, Viviane Dal-Souto Frescura, Camille F. Soares, Guilherme P. Londero, Gustavo M. Teló and Dâmaris S.S. Hansel

The plants are excellent genetic models on the detection of environmental mutagenic agents. The A. cepa test consists of a method of chromosomal alterations in onion roots, it is very effective in analyzing and monitoring the genotoxicity of environmental substances in situ. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytogenotoxicity of rice crop water after application of the tricyclazole fungicide through the A. cepa test. The application of the tricyclazole fungicide leads to an increase in the genotoxic activity in the rice crop water, through the appearance of anaphasic and telophasic bridges and laggard chromosomes in onion roots.

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41 - Vitamin E and organic selenium for broilers from 22 to 42 days old: performance and carcass traits
Authors: Daniel M.N. Albuquerque, João B. Lopes, Maíra S. Ferraz, Mabell N. Ribeiro, Sandra R.G. Silva, Elvânia M.S. Costa, Daniela C.P. Lima, Jefferson D.M. Ferreira, Pedro E.B. Gomes and Jackelline C.O. Lopes

Vitamins and minerals in animal nutrition was much studied in the 50s and 60s with research, mainly on dietary deficiency or excess (toxicity), however, in recent years these studies have intensified again. Also analyzing the dose response and the functionality of these in relation to other factors, such as immune response, lipid metabolism and stress response. This work seeks to bring light to the use of the main dietary antioxidants (selenium and vitamin E) in the production of broiler chickens reared under natural heat stress conditions.

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42 - Soil-vegetation relationships and community structure in a “terra-firme”-white-sand vegetation gradient in Viruá National Park, northern Amazon, Brazil
Authors: Bruno A.F. de Mendonça, Elpídio I. Fernandes Filho, Carlos E.G.R. Schaefer, Júlia G.F. de Mendonça and Bruno N.F. Vasconcelos

A “terra-firme”-white sand vegetation gradient was studied focused on soil-vegetation relationships in Viruá National Park (VNP), northern Amazon, Brazil. The data were subjected to assessments of floristic diversity and similarity, phytosociological parameters and to statistical analyses, focused on principal components (PC) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The vegetation gradient differed in biomass and species density. PC and CCA indicated a clear distinction between the studied plots, based on measured soil variables, especially base sum and clay content. Higher similarity of Campinaranas was associated to a monodominant species.

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43 - Evaluation of methods for the quantification of ether extract contents in forage and cattle feces
Authors: Marcília M. Barbosa, Edenio Detmann, Sebastião C. Valadares Filho, Kelly S.C. Detmann, Marcia O. Franco, Erick D. Batista and Gabriel C. Rocha

The quantification of crude fat or ether extract contents in feeds is an important aspect to correctly define diets for ruminant animals. In this study, we compared two methods applied to this purpose (Randall method; and the American Oil Chemist's Society method Am 5-04). General, ether extract contents obtained using the American Oil Chemist’s Society tended to be greater, mainly in forages. Our evaluations showed that this pattern could be associated with a greater extraction of non-fatty ether extract, which is not desirable for feed evaluation. In this sense, the Randall method should be recommended for analysis of ruminant feeds.

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44 - Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)
Authors: Fredy A.A. Aguilar, Thaline M.P. da Cruz, Gerson B. Mourão and José Eurico P. Cyrino

This study assessed the effect of body mass and water and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus. Results on mass specific standard metabolic rate, allometric exponent and van’t Hoff factor demonstrated the species low response to water temperature increases. The model defined for fasting heat production is a sensible advance in the understanding of the ecophysiology and energetic metabolism of the species, and can enable the development of bioenergetics models based on body mass and water temperature data for the farmed and husbandry of neotropical fish feeding on processed feeds.

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45 - Thermodynamic bounds for existence of normal shock in compressible fluid flow in pipes
Author: Sergio Colle

This paper is concerned with the thermodynamic theory of the normal shock in compressible fluid flow in pipes, in the lights of the pioneering works of Lord Rayleigh and G. Fanno. A novel differential identity is proposed, which relates the entropy with both, the energy flux density and the linear momentum flux density, for constant mass flow density. The identity so obtained is used to establish a theorem, which shows that Rayleigh and Fanno curves become tangent to each other at a single sonic point. A Second Law analysis based on the flux densities is also presented.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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