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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 89 (1 Suppl) - May 2017


Last year, the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (ABC) has celebrated its first centenary - a date that all scientists of Brazil should be proud of! Among the different projects developed to celebrate this important occasion, the ABC decided to publish a series of commemorative volumes. I am very proud to announce the first one, which consists of 25 selected papers, covering the areas of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Biology, Chemistry, Earth and Agrarian Sciences, Engineering and Social Sciences. We would like to thank authors for submitting these important contributions as well as CNPq and the Conrado Wessel Foundation (FCW) for supporting this initiative.

Please keep in mind that since 2000 all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site and previous editions of the Newsletter are available at the ABC website.

We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner






1 - A potent larvicidal agent against Aedes aegypti mosquito from cardanol
Authors: Derisvaldo R. Paiva, Dênis P. de Lima, Naga P. Avvari, Eduardo J. de Arruda, Isaias Cabrini, Maria Rita Marques, Edson A. dos Santos, Francisco C. Biaggio, Diego P. Sangi and Adilson Beatriz

Cardanol is a phenolic constituent of technical CNSL that presents moderate larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus. In this work, cardanol was used as starting material to make chemical transformation leading to other amphiphilic compounds. These derivatives were tested for toxicity against A. aegypti larvae. The results showed that an iodohydrin is very promising compound for making commercial products to combat the vector mosquito larvae presenting a LC50 of 0.0023 ppm, which is a result that is like the gold standard indicated for use by the Ministry of Health.

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2 - Simultaneous Determination of Furan and Vinyl Acetate in Vapor Phase of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by GC-MS
Authors: Aifei Xu, Zhong Fan, Zhiyan Chen, Yun Zhou, Shaohua Liu, Shijie Huang, Xueqin Xu, Congyun Long, Weigang Wang, Jing Zhu, Xiaolan Li and Chunpig Xu

A simple and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of furan and vinyl acetate (VA) in vapor phase of mainstream cigarette smoke with cold trap and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. This method had a good linearity, quantitative limit, precision and perfect recovery. The furan and VA yields in the vapor phase of the mainstream cigarette smoke under CI smoking condition are much higher than those under ISO smoking regimen, This method is applicable to the determination of furan and VA in the vapor phase of mainstream cigarette smoke under ISO and CI smoking regimen.

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3 - Shallow aquifer response to climate change scenarios in a small catchment in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone    
Authors: Davi C.D. Melo and Edson Wendland

The Guarani Aquifer provides water for millions of people in South America. However, little effort has been dedicated to estimate the climate change impacts on this aquifer. In this study, the responses of the aquifer to 10 climate change scenarios were simulated using a groundwater model. Most scenarios resulted in negative impacts (reduced recharge and lowering of the water table), indicating that present and future groundwater resources management should consider the influence of the climatic forcing.

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4 - Paleoenvironmental Evolution of Continental Carbonates in West-Central Brazil
Authors: Emiliano C. Oliveira, Dilce F. Rossetti and Giselle Utida

This paper presents a sedimentological and stratigraphical study of Quaternary (Middle to Late Pleistocene/Holocene) continental carbonates outcrops inside Pantanal Basin and its surroundings, especially in Serra da Bodoquena, Pantanal do Miranda and Corumbá/Ladário plateau, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, as well as in Serra das Araras, in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim is to understand the depositional paleoenvironments and analyse climate and tectonic influences in their genesis and evolution.

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5 - Contributions to a Brazilian Code of Conduct for Fieldwork in Geology: an approach based on Geoconservation and Geoethics  
Authors: Kátia L. Mansur, Luiza C.M.O. Ponciano and Aline R.S.F. de Castro

When considering the numerous events that have prohibited the development of scientific projects or caused destruction of outcrops, it is clear that there is rapidly increasing necessity to define a Brazilian Code of Conduct for geological fieldwork. The aim of this Code is to guide geologists to adopt good practices during geoscience activities. In this paper 29 points are suggested, in order to guarantee that fieldwork is conducted in accordance with geoethics, geoconservation and sustainability values. Through this Code, Brazilian geoscientists will be able to contribute to the conservation of geological heritage and of outcrops with special educational relevance.

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6 - Anesthesia of Epinephelus marginatus with essential oil of Aloysia polystachya: an approach on blood parameters   
Authors: Carine O. Fogliarini, Quelen I. Garlet, Thaylise V. Parodi, Alexssandro G. Becker, Luciano O. Garcia, Berta M. Heinzmann, Ana Maria S. Pereira and Bernardo Baldisserotto

The anesthetic potential of the essential oil from the leaves of Aloysia polystachya (EO) in juveniles of dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) was investigated. The blood gases and glucose levels showed alterations as a function of the anesthesia recovery times, but Na+ and K+ levels did not show any alteration. In conclusion, the EO is an effective anesthetic for dusky grouper, because anesthesia was reached within the recommended time at EO concentrations of 300 and 400 µL L−1. However, most evaluated blood parameters showed compensatory responses due to EO exposure.

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7 - Antioxidant effect of quinoline derivatives containing or not selenium: Relationship with antinociceptive action quinolines are antioxidant and antinociceptive  
Authors: Ethel A. Wilhelm, Ana Teresinha Ferreira, Mikaela P. Pinz, Angélica S. dos Reis, Ane G. Vogt, Andre L. Stein, Gilson Zeni and Cristiane Luchese

Oxidative stress is involved in several diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, cancer, hypertension and ischemia. In this sense it is important to use antioxidant molecules that decrease oxidative stress, reducing the incidence of these diseases. Our research group has described the synthesis and pharmacological properties of quinolines and their derivatives. Following our longstanding interest in pharmacological and toxicological properties of quinoline and its derivatives, this study demonstrated the in vitro antioxidant effect of quinoline derivatives containing or not selenium against lipid peroxidation. Moreover, quinoline derivative without selenium presented better in vitro antioxidant effect and in vivo antinociceptive activity.

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8 - Partitioning of the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically available irradiance in a deep dendritic tropical lake  
Authors: Luciana P.M. Brandão, Ludmila S. Brighenti, Peter A. Staehr, Francisco A.R. Barbosa and José F. Bezerra-Neto

The temporal and spatial distribution of tripton, Chl-a and aCDOM(440)  and their relative contribution to diffuse PAR attenuation coefficient (Kd) was investigated in a tropical lake. The lake was more transparent during rainy stratified season and the mixing period was characterized by a higher concentration of tripton and Chl-a with higher Kd values. In the spatial sampling PAR attenuation was dominated by tripton absorption/scattering (average relative contribution of 79%), followed by Chl-a (average 11.6%). In the monthly sampling Chl-a and tripton explained 97% of the monthly variation in Kd, but Chl-a was the main responsible for temporal fluctuations in Kd.

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9-Looking for attitudes related to amphibian species decline: how are peer-reviewed publications of education activities compared to ecological research?
Authors: Roger P. Mormul, Tayla D.S. Mormul, Gustavo M.B. Santos and Ana R.A. Santana

Environmental education practices are important tools for improving human perceptions on biodiversity decline. However, our findings indicate that publication of environmental education practices did not increase like ecological researches on this subject. We suggest that increasing publication of environmental education projects and program results in international journals could provide the evaluation of the efficiency of such practices and methods, and could help other nations to improve their ecological literacy. Moreover, publishing environmental practices results could help the dissemination of a more standardized protocol and facilitate access to information internationally, since species decline, especially for amphibians, is a global concern.

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10 - CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism and side effects of the central nervous system in HIV-positive individuals under Efavirenz treatment: Study of a sample from southern Brazil
Authors: Talise E. Müller, Joel H. Ellwanger, Rafael T. Michita, Maria Cristina  C. Matte and Jane D.P. Renner

CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism is frequently associated with central nervous system (CNS) side effect development in HIV-positive individuals using Efavirenz (EFV). Based on that, we: (I) Investigated this polymorphism and evaluated its influence on CNS side effect development in HIV-positive individuals undergoing EFV treatment in a population from southern Brazil; (II) Performed a survey on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of our sample; (III) Analyzed whole blood for viral load and T lymphocyte count (CD4+ and CD8+). Although we did not find statistically significant associations between the polymorphism and the clinical parameters evaluated, this is the first study that investigated the CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism among HIV-positive individuals from southern Brazil.

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11 - Insect Galls of the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (Southeast Region, Brazil)
Authors: Valéria C. Maia and Bernardo Mascarenhas

The Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (PNI) (Brazilian Southeast Region) was surveyed monthly for insect galls from February/2014 to December/ 2015. A total of 432 gall morphotypes were found. This number places the PNI as the richest Atlantic forest area in number of gall morphotypes. The insect galls were found in 154 native, 56 endemic and only one exotic plant species. Several new botanical records were reported. Leaves were the most galled plant organ, followed by stems. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) were the most common gallers. Parasitoids, successors and inquilines composed the associated fauna. Our data confirm the plant richness hypothesis as well as the hypothesis of the plant architecture, but they do not confirm the harsh environment hypothesis.

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12 - In vitro and cellular activities of the selected fruits residues for skin aging treatment
Authors: Nattaya Lourith, Mayuree Kanlayavattanakul, Puxvadee Chaikul, Chaisak Chansriniyom and Pichaporn Bunwatcharaphansakun

Peel extracts of litchi and rambutan, and that of tamarind seed coat were investigated for their utilities in skin-aging treatments. Standardized extracts of tamarind were significantly more efficient at O2- scavenging than those of litchi and rambutan and the standard as were elastase and collagenase inhibitions.  All extracts were safe to human skin fibroblasts and B16F10 melanoma cells with MMP-2, melanin production, tyrosinase and TRP-2 inhibition. Of which, litchi extract showing significantly activities over the standards, vitamin C and kojic acid. These results highlight the potential for adding value to agro-industrial waste, as the innovative, safe, anti-aging cosmetic products.

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13 - Subclinical Diabetes
Author: Luís M.T.R. Lima

In this review a survey of the scientific literature provides evidences that upon diagnostic, diabetic individuals already suffer from severe complications of the disease as well as they present increased risk to other comorbidities - in particular degenerative diseases. Such risks are also of high magnitude in a subset of individuals of normoglycemic non-diabetic individuals, indicating a subclinical stage of the disease, i.e., before the clinical onset of diabetes. The sensitivity and specificity of the current glucocentric-based diagnostic criteria for diabetes and pre-diabetes is discussed. The early identification of subclinical diabetes - related to insulin resistance – can be evaluated by a simple and affordable quantification of fasting plasma insulin and glycemia. Further call for action on lifestyle and nutrition aimed to put this condition into remission is brought into attention.

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14 - Mechanisms of Endothelial Protection by Natural Bioactive Compounds from Fruit and Vegetables
Authors: Bernardita Monsalve, Anibal Concha-Meyer, Iván Palomo and Eduardo Fuentes

The endothelium is fundamental for the regulation of vascular tone and structure. Studies have identified the contribution of diet to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In this context, high intakes of fruit and vegetables are associated with the decrease of cardiovascular diseases. Thus the most important fruit/vegetables and bioactive compounds to prevent endothelial diseases are berries, apples, virgin olive oil, tomatoes, soybeans, and polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. The bioactive compounds from fruit and vegetables provide endothelial protection through the following mechanisms: improved eNOS/NO bioavailability, attenuates oxidative stress, inhibited NF-κB pathway and decreased cell adhesion molecules expression.   ​

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15 - Differences between NMRI and DBA/2J mice in the development of somites and susceptibility to methylnitrosourea-induced skeleton anomalies
Authors: Ibrahim Chahoud and Francisco J.R. Paumgarttem

This study showed that, in mid gestation (days 8-12), development of NMRI mouse embryos proceeds faster than the development of DBA2/J mouse embryos. It was also found that the pattern of anomalies produced by a short-lived teratogen (methylnitrosourea) on a given GD markedly differed between the two mouse strains, yet they were similar – with a few exceptions - when exposure to MNU at equivalent embryonic stages are compared. These findings indicated that strain-dependent differences in the developmental stage of mouse embryos of the same gestational age occur, a possibility often neglected when inter-strain differences in susceptibility to developmental toxicants are interpreted.

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16 - Active caspase-3 expression levels as bioindicator of individual radiosensitivity
Authors: Neyliane F.G. dos Santos, Rafael F. Silva, Marcela M.P.L. Pinto, Edvane B. da Silva, Deborah R. Tasat and Ademir Amaral

The scientific article “Active caspase-3 expression levels as bioindicator of individual radiosensitivity” presents results of a research that aimed to investigate a potential assay on prediction of healthy tissues radiosensitivity. The assay consisted of flow cytometric analysis of active caspase-3 expression since this protein plays an important role in execution of radiation-induced apoptosis. G0-human lymphocytes were incubated at different times, ex vivo and in vitro, and short-term incubation of 24 h was the adequate condition to analyze this parameter and to evidence inter-individual variation. The methodology presented and discussed in this paper may help towards a personalized radiotherapy.

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17 - Inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species by Mori folium in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and zebrafish
Authors: Da Hye Kwon, Jin Woo Jeong, Eun Ok Choi, Hye Won Lee, Ki Won Lee, Ki Young Kim, Sung Goo Kim, Su Hyun Hong, Gi-Young Kim, Cheol Park, Hye-Jin Hwang, Chang-Gue Son and Yung Hyun Choi

Mori folium, the leaf of Morus alba L. (Moraceae), has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases in Korea. As part of a testing program to assess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of natural resources, we investigated the effects of Mori folium on inflammatory and oxidative responses. Our results indicated that Mori folium significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species, and inhibited the early stages of inflammatory and oxidative signaling pathways. Thus, Mori folium is a promising candidate for the treatment and prevention of diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress.

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18 - Evaluation of the predisposition and clinical impact of BK virus replication in kidney transplant patients
Authors: Elviani B. Moura, Silvia V. Petzhold, Augusto R. Amaral, Luciane M. Deboni and Paulo H.C. de França

BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVN) due to viral reactivation under immunosuppression is a growing problem among patients who underwent kidney transplantation, with high morbidity and mortality rates. As demonstrated in our study, patients in use of mycophenolate sodium as anti-rejection prophylactic immunosuppression after kidney transplant are particularly predisposed to BKV replication. The graft survival estimate in BKV-positive patients was significantly reduced (24.8% vs. 85.6%) after 10 years of transplantation. Therefore, defining predisposing factors remains an important challenge for the prevention and control of BKV activity following kidney transplantation, especially considering the development of BKVN and its strong effect on graft maintenance.

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19 - Transcolonic Perirectal NOTES Access (PNA): A feasibility study with survival in swine model
Authors: André L.A. Oliveira, Ricardo Zorron, Flavio M.M. de Oliveira, Marcelo B. dos Santos Junior, Jussara P. Scheffer, Marcelo Rios and Fernanda Antunes

A new technique for Totally NOTES perirectal access to perform retroperitoneoscopy, peritoneoscopy, liver and lymphnode biopsies was performed in 6 pigs. The specimens were extracted transanally. The flexible endoscope is inserted through a posterior transmural incision and the retrorectal space is entered as dissection progresses. All animals survived 14 days without complications. The results of feasibility and safety Transcolonic NOTES potentially brings new frontiers and future wider applications for minimally invasive surgery. The treatment of colorectal, abdominal and retroperitoneal diseases through a flexible Perirectal NOTES Access is a promising new approach besides existing laparoscopic and open surgery to improve patient care.

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20 - Soluble amino acid profile, mineral nutrient and carbohydrate content of maize kernels harvested from plants submitted to ascorbic acid seed priming
Authors: Berenice K. Alcântara, Vanessa Rizzi, Salete A. Gaziola and Ricardo A. Azevedo

Both the scientific community and society have shown interest in improving the content of amino acids, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in maize because it represents an important staple food in many developing countries. This study investigated the impacts of AsA seed priming on maize kernel quality of seeds produced by the plants generated from the primed seeds, based on the amino acid profile and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient contents. It can represent a potential technique for improving maize grain quality.

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21 - Maize dry matter production and macronutrient extraction model as a new approach for fertilizer rate estimation
Authors: Karla V. Martins, Durval Dourado-Neto, Klaus Reichardt, José L. Favarin, Felipe F. Sartori, Guilherme Felisberto and Simone C. Mello

In this paper, nutrients absorption and partitioning in maize plants are studied and described with mathematical models with the objective of considering the temporal variation of nutrients uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in the soil solution. This new approach has a great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods.

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22 - Entropy Generation Minimization Analysis of Active Magnetic Regenerators
Authors: Paulo V. Trevizoli and Jader R. Barbosa JR

Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging cooling technology based on the magnetocaloric effect. Designing optimal active magnetic regenerators (AMRs) is essential for having efficient magnetic cooling systems. AMRs are composed of a solid regenerative matrix made from a magnetocaloric material and an oscillating flow of a heat transfer fluid. In this study, entropy generation minimization (EGM) is combined with performance evaluation criteria (Variable Geometry and Fixed Face Area) to determine the best geometric and operating parameters for a specified cooling capacity and a fixed temperature span between the thermal reservoirs.

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23 - Effect of drying method on mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of enzymatically crosslinked gelatin hydrogels
Authors: Rayssa C. Simoni, Gislaine F. Lemes, Sandra Fialho, Odinei H. Goçalves, Angela M. Gozzo, Viviane Chiaradia, Claudia Sayer, Marianne A. Shirai and Fernanda V. Leimann

Enzymatically crossliked gelatin hydrogel was submitted to two different drying methods: air drying (ADH) and freeze drying (FDH). Results showed that the same gelatin hydrogel may be suitable to different applications depending on the drying process used. Polymeric tridimensional arrangement showed compact or porous, structures for ADH and FDH, respectively. Significant differences on thermal, swelling and mechanical properties were detected. Water absorption data in non-enzymatic gastric and intestinal simulated fluids (37 ºC) was modelled according to Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, and Peppas-Sahlin equations. FDH showed Fickian diffusion behavior while ADH presented an important relaxation mechanism at the beginning of swelling process.

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24 - Going Beyond Academic Integrity Might Broaden our Understanding of Plagiarism in Science Education: A Perspective from a Study in Brazil
Authors: Christiane C. Santos, Patrícia S. dos Santos, Maurício C. Santana, Hatisaburo Masuda, Monica B. Barboza and Sonia M.R. Vasconcelos

Educational policies on plagiarism in basic education have intensified in recent years in many countries. They become particularly relevant when we consider that the development of the creative potential of individuals would mean a competitive advantage for nations. In science and technology, a better understanding of the reasons behind plagiarism practices in schools and universities can inform and support initiatives to foster the creativity of students and researchers. This understanding may be deepened in several ways, including an appreciation of school culture, which in many countries still favors repetition and memorization of knowledge. Thus, addressing plagiarism beyond the dimension of academic integrity may broaden the perception of this problem by educators and policymakers. In the article, this issue is explored considering the views of high-school biology, physics, and chemistry teachers at a federal institution.

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25 - Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program - Science without Borders – Preliminary Results and Perspectives
Authors: Concepta McManus and Carlos A. Nobre

The Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program - Science without Borders (SwB) - saw the concession of over 101 thousand scholarships for Brazilian STEM students and education professionals to attend universities worldwide.  As the first phase of this program ends, it is time to take a first look at its impacts, mainly on the undergraduate student body.  Any new internationalization program needs to take into account the lessons learned from this experience such as more proactive involvement of Brazilian higher education institutions with sustainable longterm goals.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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