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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 89 (1) - March 2017


In this first volume of the year, the Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences present 30 original papers in a variety of fields. As usual, most contributions come from Biological Sciences (eight) followed by Biomedical Sciences (six).

Among the most interesting papers of this issue, I would like to call your attention to a study by Mexican researchers that have compiled a list of almost 200 plants used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for respiratory illnesses. They have further tested several and some revealed potential for the development of new drugs that could help patients with tuberculosis - a disease that has spread particularly in HIV patients.

In another important study, authors have analyzed the particular vegetation that is formed in banded iron formations and normally associated with the development of stressful environmental conditions. An interesting trade-off was revealed.

Other studies focused on how to mitigate problems of Arsenic contamination in rice cultivars, the risks and ineffectiveness of a plant commonly used by native people for diabetes treatment, and the effect of tryptophan in the brain.


Lastly, I would also call your attention to a study about dental caries in Paleoamerican populations showing that, at least in some areas, relatively early hunter-gatherer populations have developed high consumption of carbohydrates. And, if you have some time left, take a look at the editorial as well - it shows some concerns regarding the increasing problems of editors in South American journals.

Please, keep in mind that since 2000 all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site and previous editions of the Newsletter are available at the ABC website.

We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner






1- The Extended Log-Logistic Distribution: Properties and Application
Authors: Stênio R. Lima and Gauss M. Cordeiro

We propose a new four-parameter lifetime model, called the extended log-logistic distribution, to generalize the two-parameter log-logistic model. The new model is quite flexible to analyze positive data. We provide some mathematical properties including explicit expressions for the ordinary and incomplete moments, probability weighted moments, mean deviations, quantile function and entropy measure. The estimation of the model parameters is performed by maximum likelihood using the verb BFGS algorithm. We hope that the new distribution will serve as an alternative model to other useful distributions for modeling positive real data in any areas.

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2- On topological groups with an approximate fixed point property
Authors: Cleon S. Barroso, Brice R. Mbombo and Vladimir G. Pestov

A topological group G has the Approximate Fixed Point (AFP) property on a bounded convex subset C of a locally convex space if every continuous affine action of G on C admits a net net (xi), xi ∈ C such that xi − gxi → 0 for all g ∈ G. In this work, we study the relationship between this property and amenability. We show that a discrete group G is amenable if and only if every continuousaffine action of G on a bounded convex subset C of a locally convex space (LCS) X admits approximate fixed points. For a locally compact group, a similar result holds if we consider actions on bounded convex sets C which are complete in the additive uniformity, while in general we can only prove that G admits weakly approximate fixed points. This criterion of amenability is no longer true in the more general case of a Polish group, even if amenability of Polish groups can be expressed in terms of the approximate fixed point property on bounded convex subsets of the Hilbert space.

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3- Natural Compounds from Mexican Medicinal Plants as Potential Drug Leads for Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs
Authors: Rocio Gómez-Cansino, Silvia Laura Gúzman-Gutiérrez, María Guadalupe Campos-Lara, Clara Inés Espitia-Pinzón and Ricardo Reyes-Chilpa

Tuberculosis is caused by the microscopic organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Until 1980 it was considered a controlled disease worldwide; however, it has become a serious public health challenge due to drug resistance, and HIV pandemic. New anti-tuberculosis compounds are required, which can be obtained, or inspired, from plant chemicals. In this context, Ethno-medical knowledge is also a valuable resource. In this contribution we compiled 187 plants used in Mexican Traditional Medicine against respiratory diseases, 63 have been tested in laboratory and 17 have been studied chemically. Some isolated substances have interesting properties, even against resistant strains. Toxicological and clinical tests are the next research goals.

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4- Propolis from Southwest of Paraná produced by selected bees: Influence of seasonality and food supplementation on antioxidant activity and phenolic profile
Authors: Matheus A. Calegari, Anaclara Prasniewski, Cleidiane da Silva, Ricardo Y. Sado, Fabiana M.C. Maia, Larissa M.S. Tonial and Tatiane L.C. Oldoni

Propolis produced by selected bees Apis mellifera were analyzed and it can be concluded that the season and food supplementation of colonies influenced the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of samples. Propolis produced and collected in 2015 were more bioactive and presented higher content of phenolic compounds than the samples collected in 2013 and propolis produced in warmer months showed higher antioxidant activity than that produced in cooler months. The chromatographic analysis of extracts allowed the identification of phenolic acids p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic with similar chemical profiles that could be closely related to the botanical origin of propolis.

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5- Purification of inulinases by changing the ionic strength of the medium and precipitation with alcohols
Authors: Simone Golunski, Marceli F. Silva, Camila T. Marques, Vanusa Rosseto, Rosilene R. Kaizer, Altemir J. Mossi, Diane Rigo, Rogério M. Dallago, Marco Di Luccio and Helen Treichel

The present study evaluated the purification of inulinase by changing the ionic strength of the medium by addition of NaCl and CaCl2 followed by precipitation with n-propyl alcohol or iso-propyl alcohol. Results showed that a PF of 4.8-fold and a yield of 78.1 % were achieved after the change in the ionic strength followed by precipitation. These results are very promising when compared to the ones currently presented in the literature, especially the chromatographic ones, showing that enzyme purification using simple and low costs techniques could be more powerful than other more costly methods.

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6- 7-epi-griffonilide, a new lactone from Bauhinia pentandra: complete ¹H and ¹³C chemical shift assignments
Authors: Macia C.S. de Almeida, Luciana G.S. Souza, Daniele A. Ferreira, Francisco C.L. Pinto, Débora R. de Oliveira, Gilvandete M.P. Santiago, Francisco J.Q. Monte, Raimundo Braz-Filho and Telma L.G. de Lemos

The work involves a study on plants with medicinal interest where the isolation of lactones, phenylacetic derivatives and cyanoids is reported. One of the compounds is new and its structural asssignments, as well, its relative stereochemistry was determined through interesting application of NMR spectroscopy, including detailed 2D NMR.

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7- Glass Microbeads in Analog Models of Thrust Wedges
Authors: Taynara D'Angelo and Caroline J.S. Gomes

A series of analogue experiments has been performed to compare the structural characteristics of glass microbeads and sand wedges in shortening experiments, using diverse basal frictions. In all the experiments a critical tapered wedge developed with similar geometries but differences in the deformation characteristics. The innovative feature of our experiments is that the microbeads produced different fault geometries than sand as well as a different grain flow. In addition, they produced slip on minor faults that gave the appearance of disharmonic folds. We concluded that the glass microbeads may be used to simulate relatively competent rocks like carbonates.

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8- Transmissivity of Aquifer by Capture Zone Method: An Application in the Sete Lagoas Karst Aquifer, MG, Brazil
Authors: Paulo Galvão, Todd Halihan and Ricardo Hirata

Techniques to quantify transmissivity values of an aquifer, such as pumping tests, may have economic or viability limitations. One method little adopted but can be used is the capture zone analysis. Thus, capture zone analytical equations were used to estimate transmissivity values of a karst aquifer in Sete Lagoas, Brazil, as alternative in situations where other traditional methods present implementation difficulties. The method proved to be a viable and economical tool, being confirmed by a sensitivity analysis. However, a reliable potentiometric surface map, which enables the identification of the parameters for analytical capture zone equations, is needed.

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9- Early Devonian (Late Emsian) shark fin remains (Chondrichtyes) from the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil
Authors: Martha Richter, Elvio P. Bosetti and Rodrigo S. Horodyski

The Devonian is known as the ‘Age of Fishes’, when all the large taxonomic groups of these organisms known to science, many now extinct, coexisted and were widespread globally, including in South America. Researchers have been therefore mystified by the fact that to date, no fossil fishes had been found in the extensive marine rocks of this age in the vast Paraná Basin, which contains many marine invertebrates. This paper reports on the pioneering discovery of shark remains in the São Domingos Formation in Tibagi and examines the geological context of the new outcrops that finally revealed their vertebrate fossils.

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10- Premaxillary crest variation within the Wukongopteridae (Reptilia, Pterosauria) and comments on cranial structures in pterosaurs
Authors: Xin Cheng, Shunxing Jiang, Xiaolin Wang and Alexander W.A. Kellner

At one time, the absence or presence of cranial crest was considered as the signal for dividing female or male wukongopterid individual. However, a recent discovery shows that at least four types of cranial crest have been revealed within the Wukongopteridae, a transitionary group between derived and basal pterosaurs. Based on the comparison of various cranial crests, including crestless, allied with the sizes of sacral vertebrae, a conclusion has come to that the variation in shapes and sizes of wukongopterid cranial crests, including crestless, is rather species recognition than sexual dimorphism.

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11- Environmental drivers on leaf phenology of ironstone outcrops species under seasonal climate
Authors: Letícia C. Garcia, Fernanda V. Barros and José P. Lemos-Filho

Banded iron formations have a particular vegetation type and provide a good model system for testing theories related to leaf phenology, due to stressful environmental conditions. Our results confirm the hypotheses that most species would retain at least some significant canopy cover, even at the end of the dry season, independently of growth form. Moreover, the photoperiod acted as trigger and dominant factor in predicting leaf fall and leaf flushing in these environments. A trade-off between leaf loss and leaf maintenance is expected in a community in which most plants are naturally selected to be semi-deciduous.

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12- The use of microsatellite markers in Neotropical studies of wild birds: a literature review
Authors: Renan F. Moura, Deborah A. Dawson and Denise M. Nogueira

Microsatellites are popular genetic markers in molecular ecology studies. We conducted a literature review comparing the number of papers published from January 1990/July 2015 that used microsatellite markers for wild bird studies in Neotropical region, USA and some European countries. Despite the rich bird fauna in Neotropics, the number of publications represents 6.3% of that from USA and selected European countries. Within Neotropics, Brazil published 59.5% of the papers. We discuss the possible aspects related to the low number of publications using these markers in the Neotropics and suggest the use of heterologous primers as an alternative to overcome limitations.

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13- Grape juice increases the BDNF levels but does not alter the S100B levels in hippocampus and frontal cortex from male Wistar Rats
Authors: Caroline Dani, Ana Cristina Andreazza, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Flávio Kapizinski, João A.P. Henriques and Mirian Salvador

Grape and its derivate are important for our country. Our group have been publishing studies about grape juice and health benefits, including a low risk of oxidative stress-induced diseases. This study aimed at verifying the effects of conventional and organic grape juice in the modulation of the neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and astrocytic markers protein (S100B) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of Wistar rats. The animals that received organic and conventional grape juice showed elevated BNDF levels. These results showed that grape juices could promote an important protection to the brain, preventing future degenerative diseases.

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14- Effect of phosphorus on arsenic uptake and metabolism in rice cultivars differing in phosphorus use efficiency and response
Authors: Júlia G. Farias, Katieli Bernardy, Raíssa Schwalbert, Bianca K. Del Frari, Andrew Meharg, Manus Carey, Anderson C.R. Marques, Antonio Signes-Pastor, Darlene Sausen, Márcio R.W. Schorr, Mirian da S. Tavares and Fernando T. Nicoloso

Arsenic (As) is known to have many toxic effects in humans and is ranked first, in the priority list of hazardous substances compiled by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Besides the imminent risk to human health, Arsenic has been reported to stimulate the formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress. In other to mitigate As stress, plants may modulate pathways to maintain a minimal cellular concentration; the adaptive capacity of each genotype, including mineral nutrition and As translocation and remobilization may be the key to cope As stress. Thus, phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) has become topical in recent times, showing potential for a better management in agricultural systems, and in this study we aimed to evaluate its relationship with As tolerance. The As and P effect were cultivar-dependent. In our study there was no evidence of relation between PUE and As translocation in early stage in rice plants, however it was related to As tolerance. Thus our results go some way to understanding the role of P nutrition in controlling the effects of As in rice growth.

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15- Characterization and bioactivities of a novel polysaccharide obtained from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis
Authors: Chen-Shan Shi, Ya-Xin Sang, Gui-Qing Sun, Tian-Ye Li, Zheng-Si Gong and Xiang-Hong Wang

In this study, a novel non-agar seaweed polysaccharide fraction was isolated from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, which named GCP. Structural characterization showed that GCP show triple helical chain conformation in water, have more branches and longer side chains, exist O-glycosidic linkage and 1→3 linkage account for the major part. Two fractions (GCP-1 and GCP-2) obtained by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography purified. Splenocyte damage assay and splenocyte proliferation assay were used to analyze bioactivities of polysaccharides. It was shown that polysaccharide could significantly protect splenocyte damaged by H2O2 and significantly enhanced the splenocyte proliferation.

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16- The partitioning of food resources between two rodents in the subtropical region of southern Brazil
Authors: Fábio P. Espinelli, Fabiano Corrêa, Elton P. Colares and Ioni G. Colares

The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) occur in sympatry in southern South America. To analyze the overlap of food resources, micro-histological fecal analysis was used. 48 species of plants belonging to 10 families were consumed by capybaras, and 49 species belonging to 14 families by nutria. The multivariate analysis showed different proportions in the consumption of each food. Both rodents adopted a specialized strategy to feeding on Poaceae and a generalized strategy for other families. The dietary overlap between species in Taim was high, suggesting that the partitioning of other resources ensured the coexistence of the species.

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17- S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool: a comparison of the in vitro anti-Aeromonas hydrophila activity and anesthetic properties in fish
Authors: Lenise L. Silva, Luana S. Balconi, Letícia T. Gressler, Quelen I. Garlet, Fernando J. Sutili, Agueda P.C. Vargas, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Ademir F. Morel and Berta M. Heinzmann

The isomeric forms S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool isolated from the essential oils of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown and Ocimum americanum L. were evaluated by their antimicrobial and anesthetic properties in fish. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated through the microdilution test against Aeromonas hydrophila, an important etiologic agent of fish disease. Induction time until sedation and anesthesia and recovery time were determined in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through bath exposure (60, 180, 300 or 500 μL L-1). Only S-(+)-linalool was active against A. hydrophila at 3.2 mg mL-1. Sedation was induced without differences between the compounds, whereas R-(-)-linalool promoted faster anesthesia.

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18- Long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS) gene variability in Neotropical cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae)
Authors: Thomaz M.C. Fabrin, Sonia Maria A.P. Prioli and Alberto José Prioli

This study provides evidences about the variability of the partial long-wavelength (LWS) opsin gene in Neotropical cichlids. It compares the data obtained with African cichlids sequences of this gene, available in Genbank. It also analyses the codons under selection in both groups, showing divergences between them, probably due to their habitats, since Neotropical cichlids are spread over a broad area and submitted to a wider range of selective pressures than the African cichlids. Still, Neotropical cichlids sequences accumulated a higher number of variable sites than African cichlids.

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19- Comparative analysis of two different models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnant age
Authors: Silvana B. Corvino, Débora C. Damasceno, Yuri K. Sinzato, Aline O. Netto, Nathália C.D. Macedo, Elena Zambrano and Gustavo T. Volpato

Severe diabetes model (glycemia ≥300 mg/dL) leads to offspring small for pregnancy age. The correlation between physical exercise effects and pregnancy is unclear. This study aimed at comparing the maternal outcomes of two different models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnancy age. The continuous exercise of 60 min/day ameliorated the enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity in growth-restricted female pregnant rats in relation to rats exposed to 15 min, followed by 15 min of rest and a second 15 min of exercise. However, the exercise of 60 min/day protocol at pregnancy led to intrauterine growth restriction.

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20- Bone turnover markers in sheep and goat: A review of the scientific literature
Authors: José A. Camassa, Camila C. Diogo, Cristina P. Sousa, Jorge T. Azevedo, Carlos A. Viegas, Rui L. Reis, Nuno Dourado and Isabel R. Dias

Small ruminants (sheep, goats), are widely used as large animal models in orthopaedic research. For these research studies generally imaging, mechanical, histological and histomorphometric analyses have been used. Nevertheless more recently clinical biochemistry analysis with resource to bone turnover markers (BTMs) becomes also to be used. The BTMs are products of bone cell activity divided in bone formation and resorption markers. This review presents the available information on the use of BTMs on small ruminants for animal and veterinary science studies and for pre-clinical and translational orthopaedic research, such as in the fracture healing process evaluation and for osteoporosis studies.

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21- Autophagy protects against neural cell death induced by piperidine alkaloids present in Prosopis juliflora (Mesquite)
Authors: Victor D.A. Silva, Carlos Cuevas, Patricia Muñoz, Monica Villa, Ulises Ahumada-Castro, Sandro Huenchuguala, Cleonice C. dos Santos, Fillipe M. de Araujo, Rafael S. Ferreira, Vanessa B. da Silva, Juliana H.C. e Silva, Érica N. Soares, Eudes S. Velozo, Juan Segura-Aguilar and Silvia L. Costa

Prosopis juliflora (Mesquite) is a shrub that has been used to feed animals and humans. However, a synergistic action of piperidine alkaloids has been suggested to be responsible for neurotoxic damage observed in animals. We demonstrated that a total extract of alkaloids and piperidine fraction from P. juliflora leaves induce reduction in ATP levels and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, associated to neuronal death. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that modulation of autophagy interferes in cell death indicating that this mechanism is associated to protection against neurotoxicity induced by piperidine alkaloids.

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22- Effect of Bauhinia holophylla treatment in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Authors: Marcelo S. Pinheiro, Luhara S. Rodrigues, Leila S. Neto, Rafaianne Q. Moraes-Souza, Thaigra S. Soares, Madileine F. Américo, Kleber E. Campos, Débora C. Damasceno and Gustavo T. Volpato

Plants have been used as an alternative therapy for the diabetes treatment. Many plants present hypoglycemic activity, but some still require further investigation. Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as “cow’s hoof”, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment, but there is no data on its safety and effectiveness. Our study showed that the treatment with B. holophylla leaves given to diabetic rats presented no hypoglycemic effect in nondiabetic animals and no antidiabetic effect in diabetic animals. In addition, the diabetic animals treated with the B. holophylla extract caused negative effects and its indiscriminate consumption requires particular carefulness.

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23- Tryptophan overloading activates brain regions involved with cognition, mood and anxiety
Authors: Luana C.A. Silva, Milena B. Viana, José S. Andrade, Melyssa A. Souza, Isabel C. Céspedes and Vânia D’Almeida

Tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin and previous studies have shown that its administration or depletion can significantly alter cognition, mood and anxiety. In our study we observed that male Wistar rats which received a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days demonstrated an increased Fos-ir in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, paraventricular hypothalamus, arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsolateral and dorsomedial periaqueductal grey and dorsal and median raphe nucleus. These observations suggest that the physiological and behavioral alterations that follow the administration of tryptophan are associated with the activation of brain regions that regulate cognition and mood/anxiety-related responses.

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24- Immune System Dysfunction in the Elderly
Authors: Eduardo Fuentes, Manuel Fuentes, Marcelo Alarcón and Iván Palomo

Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty that profoundly affects the immune system. Elderly individuals usually present chronic low-level inflammation, higher infection rates and chronic diseases. A study of alterations in the immune system during aging could provide a potentially useful biomarker for the evaluation of immune senescence treatment. The immune system is the result of the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity, yet the impact of aging on this function is unclear. In this article the function of the immune system during aging is explored.

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25- Molecular survey of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Authors: Rodrigo Soares, Carlos Alberto Ramos, Thatianna Pedroso, Verônica Babo-Terra, Herbert Cleveland and Flábio de Araújo

Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis are Gram-negative, obligatory intracellular bacteria that belong to the Anaplasmataceae family (Dumler et al. 2001). These organisms are often found in dogs, and are mainly transmitted through the bite of an infected tick. A molecular survey was performed to identify the frequency of infection by E. canis and A. platys in sick dogs from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Among the 181 samples collected, 108 (59.66%) were positive for E. canis, 28 (15.46%) for A. platys, and 18 animals (9.94%) were coinfected by both agents.

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26- Dental caries at Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil: An Early Holocene archaeological site
Authors: Pedro Da-Gloria, Rodrigo E. Oliveira and Walter A. Neves

This article approaches the subsistence of early inhabitants of the New World analyzing frequency of dental caries in a skeletal collection from the archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sample analyzed here (n=19) consists of the largest Paleoamerican collection for a single site in the Americas with archaeological context and well-preserved human skeletons. We compare caries frequency of Lapa do Santo with regional and world-wide samples. High frequency of dental caries was observed at Lapa do Santo, suggesting a relatively high consumption of carbohydrates for this early hunter-gatherer population.

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27- Evaluation of cytogenotoxicity, antioxidant and hypoglycemiant activities of isolate compounds from Mansoa hirsuta D.C. (Bignoniaceae)
Authors: Joquebede R. Pereira, Raphael F. Queiroz, Erlânia A. de Siqueira, Ana Christina Brasileiro-Vidal, Antônio E.G. Sant’Ana, Daniel M. Silva and Paulo R.A. de Mello Affonso

The native flora of caatinga in Brazilian semiarid is rich in endemic species popularly used by local communities, but little is known about the pharmacological and toxic effects. In this work, we analyzed the composition and properties of extracts from a typical plant species of this habitat (Mansoa hirsuta, Bignoniaceae) a native plant from caatinga in Brazilian semiarid. The potential of this plant in popular medicine was corroborated since some fractions inhibited inflammatory and oxidative effects while no toxic effects, particularly in ursolic+oleanolic acids, were observed. Therefore, M. hirsuta represents a potential source of phytochemicals against pathologies, including diabetes.

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28- Artificial diet for laboratory rearing of Condylorrhiza vestigialis (Guenée, 1854) (Lep.: Crambidae)
Authors: Lucas S. Campos, Aloisio Coelho Jr and José Roberto P. Parra

The Brazilian Poplar Moth, Condylorrhiza vestigialis (Guenée), compromises the wood productivity of poplar trees (Populus sp.), mainly affecting the matchstick industry in southern Brazil. Considering the lack of information on rearing techniques for this insect, the objective of this study was to develop an artificial diet to rear C. vestigialis with biological characteristics similar to the wild. A properly diet will enable bio-ecological studies and biological control programs using the baculovirus Condylorrhiza vestigialis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CvMNPV). This study determines one artificial diet adequate for mass rearing of C. vestigialis, to support biological control programs using the baculovirus.

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29- Exogenous enzyme complex prevents intestinal soybean meal-induced enteritis in Mugil liza (Valenciennes, 1836) juvenile
Authors: Leonardo R.V. Ramos, Virgínia F. Pedrosa, Agnes Mori, Carlos F.F. de Andrade, Luis A. Romano, Paulo C. Abreu and Marcelo B. Tesser

This work evaluated the effects of an exogenous enzyme complex supplementation on Mugil liza juveniles. Results show that the supplementation of enzymes did not influence M. liza growth performance and body composition. However, it was found that even the lower level of enzyme complex supplementation prevented the soybean meal induced-enteritis, which was observed in the control feed fish without enzyme. Also, the filamentous bacteria enumeration in the gastrointestinal tract was modulated by the enzyme inclusion. This bacterial group is described in the literature with some benefits to the immunological responses in the host against pathological bacteria.

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30- Richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides in rice paddy fields.
Authors: Alana C.D. Wandscheer, Enio Marchesan, Sandro Santos, Renato Zanella, Marília F. Silva, Guilherme P. Londero and Gabriel Donato

The objective of this study was to verify the richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and tricyclazole, and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam and diflubenzuron of the rice paddy fields. We observed that the application of a single dose of the pesticides in the recommended period does not cause significant negative effects over the richness and density of the macroinvertebrates. However, tebuconazole, tricyclazole and thiamethoxam showed high persistence in the irrigation water of rice paddy fields.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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