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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 88 (3 Suppl.) - November 2016


With great pleasure I would like to call your attention to the present supplementary issue of the AABC - the second of the year. Dedicated to Biological Sciences, this publication features 35 articles, mostly original research. A great number of the contributions are related to Zoology, focusing on fishes (e.g., population structure of a siluriform; digestive tract of a puffer fish), snakes (reproductive biology of a Dipsadidae), anurans (diversity in subtropical areas; reproductive phenology), and insects (e.g., larvae and pupa of a Diptera; new species from neotropical areas).

Other studies presented here are more ecological (e.g., nematodes on sandy beaches; effects of changing vegetation in bird communities), including a review on the impacts of non-native tree plantations and invasive plant species in China.

Lastly, I would also like to mention the studies on the potential influence of selenium in Parkinson´s disease, a paper on ophidism (a public health problem) and a publication on toxicological studies regarding medicinal plants.


Please, keep in mind that since 2000 all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site and previous editions of the Newsletter are available at the ABC website.

We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner


1 - Biological variables of Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Itapecerica River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Authors: Camila F. Sales, Fabrício Flávio T. Domingos, Ludmila S. Brighenti, Rosy I.M.A. Ribeiro, Hélio B. Santos and Ralph G. Thomé

We described aspects of population structure, length-weight relationship and reproductive biology of the Hypostomus francisci from Itapecerica River in the urban area. Reproductive cycle and fecundity can be identified as life history strategies in freshwater fishes that represent the essential trade-offs among the basic demographic parameters of survival, evidencing the relationships between the species and environmental conditions. Although H. francisci has a wide distribution along the São Francisco Basin, there are few studies available on their ecological interactions. The reproductive parameters and population structure of H. francisci from Itapecerica River suggested that this species showed singular reproductive tactics among congeners.

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2 - Morphological and histochemical characterization of the digestive tract of the puffer fish Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus 1758) (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae)
Authors: Kainã R.C. Fagundes, Matheus M. Rotundo and Renata B. Mari

The morphological composition of digestive tract of Sphoeroides testudineus showed an esophagus with an anterior and a posterior portion, which is able to expand. No stomach was observed between the abdominal pouch and the intestine. The intestine was arranged in three segments and two loops, and the rectum opening into the anus. Histochemical analyses showed that the esophagus secreted acid mucosecretions, and that there was a qualitative increase in acid muco-secreting cells from the proximal to distal area of the intestine. The rectum showed cells secreting acid and neutral mucus. 

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3 - Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae)
Authors: Florentina Díaz, Danielle Anjos-Santos, Amparo Funes and María M. Ronderos

Biting midges of the genus Dasyhelea Kieffer are a large and complex group of Ceratopogonidae with diverse morphology and biology, occurring worldwide in a variety of habitats. At present there are 70 extant species of Dasyhelea inhabiting the Neotropical region, of which 12 belong to the cincta species-group. The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland “mallin” on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina.

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4 - Sandy beaches: state of the art of nematode ecology
Authors: Tatiana F. Maria, Jan Vanaverbeke, Ann Vanreusel and André M. Esteves

In this review, we summarize existing knowledge of the ecology of sandy-beach nematodes, in relation to several ecological aspects, such as: spatial distribution, food webs, pollution and climate change. This review aims to provide a substantial background on current knowledge of sandy-beach nematodes, and can be used as a starting point to delineate further investigations for ecological studies of this tiny group of organisms.

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5 - Biological functions of selenium and its potential influence on Parkinson’s disease
Authors: Joel H. Ellwanger, Silvia I.R. Franke, Diana L. Bordin, Daniel Prá and João A.P. Henriques

Selenium is indispensable for the proper functioning of the brain. However, inadequate body levels of this mineral may contribute to increased oxidative stress. This molecular injury is associated with the emergence of various diseases affecting the central nervous system such as Parkinson's disease. In this review, we present some of the major biological functions of selenium and discuss the possible role of selenium on Parkinson's disease.

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6 - Ecological impacts of non-native tree species plantations are broad and heterogeneous: a review of Brazilian research
Authors: Marcos O. Valduga, Rafael D. Zenni and Jean R.S. Vitule

Planted areas are expected to increase in the near future; thus, it is important to systematize existing knowledge on the ecological effects of plantations. In a systematic review, we show that most impacts of non-native tree plantations were negative (56%), followed by positive (27%), and mixed (17%). Negative impacts were declines in species richness and abundance, seed bank diversity, and natural regeneration. Positive impacts were increase or maintenance of seed bank diversity and natural regeneration. Our results suggest forest management can help maintain biodiversity if it considers previous environmental conditions and integrates plantations with surrounding habitats.

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7 - Synergistic activity of doped zinc oxide nanoparticles with antibiotics: ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, fluconazole and amphotericin B against pathogenic microorganisms
Authors: Neha Sharma, Savita Jandaik and Sanjeev Kumar

The present study was designed to study the antimicrobial potential of undoped ZnO and doped ZnO NPs and their combined effect with the antibiotics. Antimicrobial potential against six bacterial isolates (Escherischia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus & Bacillus subtilis) and four fungal isolates (Trichophyton mentagrophytes & Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans) were evaluated. Doped nanoparticles gave best results in the order 10% doped ZnO NPs> 1% doped ZnO NPs > Undoped ZnO NPs. In combination studies, synergistic and additive effects were found, no antagonistic effect was seen.

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8 - Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae
Authors: Thaís A.P. Gonçalves and Rita Scheel-Ybert

Anthracology, the discipline studying charcoal through wood anatomy identification, is highly demanded in palaeoecology, archaeobotany, and environmental conservation. The development of these multidisciplinary studies has greatly increased in the last decades. However, charcoal anatomy descriptions are still much needed in order to increase knowledge of the Brazilian flora and to help charcoal identification. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven native species from Anacardiaceae. This is the first time that charcoal anatomy descriptions are presented for all these species, and for two of them these are the first descriptions both in charcoal as in conventional wood anatomy.

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9 - rDNA mapping, heterochromatin characterization and AT/GC content of Agapanthus africanus (L.) Hoffmanns (Agapanthaceae)
Authors: Aryane C. Reis, Ana Luiza Franco, Victória R. Campos, Flávia R. Souza, Cristiane Zorzatto, Lyderson F. Viccini and Saulo M. Sousa

Agapanthus has 10 species described. However, most taxonomists differ in respect to this number because of the great phenotypic plasticity. The cytogenetic has been an important tool to aid the plant taxon identification, and to date, all taxa of Agapanthus studied cytologically, presented 2n = 30. Although the species possess large chromosomes, the group is karyologically little explored. For the first time in one species of Agapanthus the pattern of heterochromatin and the position of the 45S and 5S rDNA using in situ Hybridization was described. The data allowed important upgrade for biology and cytotaxonomy of Agapanthus africanus (L.) Hoffmanns.

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10 - Reproductive biology of Thamnodynastes hypoconia (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) in Brazilian subtemperate wetlands
Authors: Marluci M. Rebelato, Gláucia M.F. Pontes and Alexandro M. Tozetti

This study provides information on the reproductive biology of populations of Thamnodynastes hypoconia in the Brazilian southernmost submitted to subtemperate climate conditions. Macroscopic analysis of the gonads showed seasonality in the reproductive cycle of females, with parturition restricted to the warmer months. Males showed continuous cycle, producing sperm continuously throughout the year, which reinforces the necessity for histological studies to confirm the duration of the reproductive cycle. The viviparity and the supposed continuity of the male reproductive cycle can have great influence on the reproductive success of this species, because of the high population density in the studied site.

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11 - Lipolytic response of adipose tissue and metabolic adaptations to long periods of fasting in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp., Teleostei: Cichlidae)
Authors: Walter Dias Junior, Amanda M. Baviera, Neusa M. Zanon, Victor D. Galban, Maria Antonieta R. Garófalo, Celio R. Machado, Elisa F.L.C. Bailão and Isis C. Kettelhut

Adaptive changes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism induced by chronic fasting were investigated in red tilapia. The content of liver glycogen in fed tilapia fell in 7 days of fasting, which contributed to the glycemia maintenance until 90 days of fasting. Moreover, fasting induced the lipolytic activity of mesenteric adipose tissue, leading to an increase in plasma free fatty acids levels. Differently to what was observed in mammal adipose tissue, addition of cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor or non-selective beta adrenergic agonist caused a lipolysis reduction in fasted fish. This study allowed a physiological assessment of red tilapia response to starvation.

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12 - Scientific Performance of Brazilian Researchers in Pharmacology with grants from CNPq: A comparative study within the Brazilian categories
Authors: Jean P. Kamdem, Amos O. Abolaji, Daniel H. Roos, Luciana Calabró, Nilda V. Barbosa, Diogo O. Souza and João Batista T. Rocha

In Brazil, the highest productive scientists are categorized by the funding agency CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) as PQ 1, which is sub-divided into PQ 1D (lowest) to PQ 1A (the highest productive).  In this study, we found that there is a clear difference among researchers in Pharmacology from the higher categories (1A vs. 1B) in terms of total documents, citations and h-index. However, no noticeable differentiation was found between researchers from grant category 1C and 1D. These results may help to define new differences within CNPq grant categories, and consequently, a better allocation of grants.

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13 - The effects of forest-savanna-grassland gradients on bird communities of Chiquitano Dry Forests domain, in western Brazil
Authors: Mauricio N. Godoi and Edivaldo O. de Souza

Bird communities in mountains can change according to the vegetation types. Here, we present the bird communities in forests, savannas and altitudinal grasslands of Maciço do Urucum, a Chiquitano Dry Forest in western Brazil. We recorded 165 bird species, with highest richness and abundance of birds in forested savannas, riparian forests and submontane forests, and lowest richness and abundance in arboreal savannas and altitudinal grasslands. The bird composition was similar between riparian and submontane forests, and more dissimilar in other vegetation types. Our results show the importance of vegetation types for the conservation of birds in the Maciço do Urucum.

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14 - Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents
Authors: Greice H.S. Peil, Anelise V. Kuss, Andrés F.G. Rave, José P.V. Villarreal, Yohana M.L. Hernandes and Patrícia S. Nascente

The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated (Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola) and seven filamentous fungi (Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp.). This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

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15 - Feeding preference of Plutella xylostella for leaves treated with plant extracts
Authors: Irys F.S. Couto, Mateus L. Fuchs, Fabrício F. Pereira, Munir Mauad, Silvana P.Q. Scalon, Daiane M. Dresch and Rosilda M. Mussury

The identification of plant species with a biopesticide potential is an important tool for insect control. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Pink Pepper), Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum), Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil.) Benth. & Hook. (Pindaúva do campo) and Trichilia silvatica C. DC. (Catiguá-branco) had their potential as an antifeedant analyzed, against one of the most harmful insects of brassicas crops, Diamondback Moth. The most effective results were observed on larvae of third instar. These are promising results, enabling future studies to identify compounds with an insecticidal activity, involving a wide range of pest systems and cultures.

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16 - Floristic characteristics of alien invasive seed plant species in China
Authors: Congyan Wang, Jun Liu, Hongguang Xiao, Jiawei Zhou and Daolin Du

There are 515 (five hundred and fifteen) alien invasive plant species from 72 (seventy-two) families and 285 (two hundred and eighty-five) genera reported from China in 2014. The floristic analysis of alien invasive seed plant species is very important for their control and management. There is a total of 513 (five hundred and thirteen) alien invasive seed plant species belonging to 70 (seventy) families and 283 (two hundred and eighty-three) genera. The floristic characteristics at the family level exhibit strong pantropic characteristics. The floristic characteristics at the genus level display strong pantropic but with abundant temperature characteristics.

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17 - Sloths of the Atlantic Forest in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
Authors: Danielle O. Moreira and Sérgio L. Mendes

Early modern science (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries) brought advances in studies of zoology. Europe received many unknown species, including sloths, one of the curiosity items from the New World. Because of its strange appearance and behavior, we performed a historical research on how naturalists and travellers described the species. We found that sloth was described in many inaccurate ways: as a beast, or an odd child. It was a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion. We also raised the identity of Carolus Clusius’ sloth, a drawing published in 1605, perhaps the first drawing of the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus).

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18 - Miconia gigantea, a long-forgotten endemic and endangered species of Melastomataceae in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest
Authors: Lilian P.G. da Rosa, José F.A. Baumgratz and Sebastião J. da Silva Neto

Miconia gigantea Cogn. belongs to the most representative genera of Melastomataceae in Brazil. This species is endemic of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and uncollected for over 100 years since the first description made by Cogniaux in 1891. The rediscovery of this species allowed us to present an amended and detailed description, including reproductive characters, absent in the original diagnosis, and the conservation status. Illustrations of the species and habitat are also presented, in addition to the distribution map and discussion about morphological similarities with related species.

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19 - The gastroprotective effect of Memora nodosa roots against experimental gastric ulcer in mice
Authors: Dayane M. Silva, José L.R. Martins, Iziara F. Florentino, Danillo R. Oliveira, James O. Fajemiroye, Leonice M.F. Tresnvenzol, José R. Paula and Elson A. Costa

The plant Memora nodosa, family Bignoniaceae, is commonly known as “caroba” and widely found in Cerrado regions in Brazil. The traditional medicine reports the popular use of this species to treat external wounds and abdominal pain. Hence, in the present investigation, we evaluated the effect of ethanolic extracts from roots of Memora nodosa (EMN) on the gastric mucosa of mice. The treatment with this extract reduced gastric ulcer formation in different models induced by indomethacin, ethanol, stress and food restriction. The treatment of animals with EMN demonstrated an increase of adhered gastric mucus suggesting that mucus levels may be an important mechanism of its gastric cytoprotection.

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20 - Amyloid-β peptide absence in short term effects on kinase activity of energy metabolism in mice hippocampus and cerebral cortex
Authors: Francine R. Ianiski, Virginia C. Rech, Vivian S.K. Nishihira, Catiane B. Alves, Matheus D. Baldissera, Ethel A. Wilhelm and Cristiane Luchese

In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the effects of three key kinases activities (creatine kinase, pyruvate kinase and adenylate kinase) of energy metabolism and treatments with blank nanocapsules or meloxicam-loaded nanocapsules or free meloxicam, in hippocampus and cerebral cortex in Alzheimer’s disease model in mice. We observed absence in short-term effects in kinases activities of energy metabolism in mice hippocampus and cerebral cortex using amyloid-β peptide model.

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21 - In vitro germination of zygotic embryof hybrid BRS Manicoré (E. guineensis X E. oleifera)
Authors: Keila A.P. Bonetti, Marguerite Quoirin, Regina C. Quisen and Suelen C.S. Lima

The purpose of this study was to optimize the in vitro germination of zygotic embryos of oil palm hybrid BRS Manicoré (E. guineensis x E. oleifera). We showed the importance of a high concentration of NaH2PO4 in the culture medium.  Whole plants were formed in 75% of zygotic embryos cultured in Y3 medium, a higher percentage than for MS, MS½ and N6 media (46, 35 and 17% respectively). The embryos cultured onY3 medium were also larger. Results of viability obtained by the tetrazolium test were similar to those of germination, showing the effect of the genotype of each seed lot.

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22 - Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis
Authors: Bernardo Melo Neto, Joseana M.S.R. Leitão, Luciano G.C. Oliveira, Sérgio E.M. Santos, Sabrina M.P. Carneiro, Klinger A.F. Rodrigues, Mariana H. Chaves, Daniel D.R. Arcanjo and Fernando A.A. Carvalho

The antileishmanial effect induced by stem barks from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its N-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. Thus, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying the activation of macrophages’ defense mechanisms. 

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23 - Recognition memory and DNA damage in undernourished young rats
Authors: Patrícia Molz, Joel H. Ellwanger, Fernanda F. Zenkner, Deivis de Campos, Daniel Prá, Marisa T.L. Putzke and Silvia I.R. Franke

We evaluated the recognition memory and the levels of DNA damage (in the blood and hippocampus) in undernourished young Wistar rats. The experiment was performed during a 14 weeks period with rodents divided in control group (n=8) and undernourished group (n=12), which was submitted to caloric restriction. The results of our study showed that the undernutrition by caloric restriction did not cause impairment in recognition memory. The undernourished group showed decreased levels of DNA damage in the blood and increased levels of damage in the hippocampus.

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24 - A simplified table for staging embryos of the pipid frog Pipa arrabali
Authors: Olívia G.S. Araújo, Célio F.B. Haddad, Hélio R. da Silva and Lourdes A. Pugener

One of the ways biologists have established to study comparatively the development of animals, is by way of building up a table where features easily observed on embryos can be recorded in different stages. In many cases, as in the present study, the time between stages cannot be established, but the sequence may serve in many different ways when the approach involves studying the evolution of development. Here we propose such a table for the establishment of a sequence of stages of embryos of a frog that after fertilization the egg get imbeded in the females back skin. Tadpoles are not free and from the back pouch like structure, froglets emerge. These are aquatic frogs and this reproductive mode may represent an advantage against predation. Our sample did not include all the stages (in the earliest embryo we had, we can already observe the leg buds), but with the table we produced, it will be possible to establish comparisons with close related species in this group.

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25 - Physicochemcial/photophysical characterization and angiogenic properties of Curcuma longa essential oil
Authors: Lilhian A. Araújo, Rafael G.M. Araújo, Flávia O. Gomes, Susy R. Lemes, Luciane M. Almeida, Lauro J.Q. Maia, Pablo J. Gonçalves, Fátima Mrué, Nelson J. Silva-Junior and Paulo R. de Melo-Reis

The manuscript approach the physicochemical and photophysical properties of essential oil of Curcuma longa and its angiogenic potential. The results showed that the curcumin is the main fluorescent component present in the oil and significant increase in neovascularization of Curcuma longa. The oil of Curcuma longa presented a considerable proangiogenic activity and could be a potential compound to be used to medical applications.

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26 - Seasonal variation of the essential oil from two Brazilian native Aldama La Llave (Asteraceae) species
Authors: Tuane S. de Oliveira, Aline B. Bombo, Adriana S.S. de Oliveira, Vera L. Garcia and Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

Aldama arenaria and A. robusta have biological and pharmacological potential associated to the essential oil (EO) production. Yield and chemical composition of EO’s from vegetative organs of these species were investigated in flowering and dormant phases.  For both species, mono, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified in the EO. The presence of unique compounds can provide a characteristic chemical profile for both species. Yield and chemical composition of EO’s varied among organs, species, and also between the phenological stages. Monoterpenes levels in the underground organs increased during the dormant stage and they have been shown to protect against herbivores and pathogens.

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27 - Diversity of anurans in dry forest fragments of a subtropical region in Brazil
Authors: Eduardo J. dos Santos and Carlos E. Conte

In this study we identified and compared the diversity between two areas within different matrices in the Mesophytic Semideciduous Forest and also compared the composition and diversity to other assemblages. We recorded 18 species. Alfa-diversity results suggested better distribution and equity of species in the available habitat. High beta-diversity was attributed to one species’ abundance. The quantity of sampled breeding sites was a determinant factor for higher records of richness and geographical distance for the distinction between localities.

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28 - Reproductive phenology of the American Bullfrog in subtropical Brazil: photoperiod as a main determinant of seasonal activity
Authors: Camila I. Medeiros, Camila Both, Igor L. Kaefer and Sonia Z. Cechin

The American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus is one of the most successful invasive species of the world. We studied its reproductive seasonality in an invaded locality in southern Brazil in order to understand how alien species are adjusting their life histories to new colonized environments. In our study area, bullfrogs presented a breeding season twice as long as that observed in some native localities. In addition, we found a close relationship between reproductive activity and day length (photoperiod), which also seems to be the main predictor of reproductive activity of native species in the region.

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29 - Correlation between infection rate of triatominies and Chagas Disease in Southwest of Bahia, Brazil: a warning sign?
Authors: Eliezer A. da Silveira, Israel S. Ribeiro, Miguel S. Amorim, Dalva V. Rocha, Helder S. Coutinho, Leandro M. de Freitas, Laize Tomazi and Robson A.A. da Silva

Chagas disease has a wide distribution in South America. It is presented here the geographic distribution and the rate of natural infection by T. cruzi of triatomines collected and evaluated from 2008 to 2013 in southwest of Bahia. 8966 triatomines were captured and identified as belonging to eight species. Twenty-six presented themselves infected. All cities showed triatomines infected with T. cruzi, so there is considerable risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease in the southwestern Bahia state, evidencing the need for vector transmission control programs and preventive surveillance measures.

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30 - Atheroprotective action of a modified organoselenium compound: in vitro evidence
Authors: Jade de Oliveira, Marcos R. Straliotto, Gianni Mancini, Claudia P. Figueiredo, Antônio L. Braga, João B.R. Teixeira and Andreza F. Bem

Organoselenium compounds, glutathione peroxidase mimetics, have demonstrated promising atheroprotective properties in cell and animal models. In this study, we showed impressive in vitro atheroprotective capability of a modified organoselenium compound, Compound HBD in protecting isolated LDL from oxidation as well as foam cells formation. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and consequently foam cell formation have been strongly suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. Specifically, the Compound HBD reduced the Cu2+-induced oxidation of LDL lipid and protein portions, and efficiently decreased the foam cell formation in macrophage cells exposed to oxidized LDL.

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31 - Phaeosphaeria deschampsii (Ascomycota): A new parasite species of Deschampsia antarctica (Poacea) described to Antarctica 
Authors: Jair Putzke and Antonio B. Pereira

This paper presents the description of the new fungi species Phaeosphaeria deschampsii (Ascomycota), which was found parasitizing the Antarctic hair grass Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae), in Half Moon Island, South Shetland Archipelago, Maritime Antarctica. Many patches of the only native Poaceae species in the Antarctic, were found dead, parasitized by this fungi. Based on the shape of its perithecia, with oblique neck, erumpent in the grass tissues, form and septation of the ascospore, the species was identified as new to science.

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32 - Evaluation of the complexity and performance of marine planktonic trophic models
Authors: Suzana G. Leles, Jean L. Valentin and Gisela M. Figueiredo

Life in oceans is triggered by diverse microscopic forms named as plankton. They fuel complex food webs and sustain important ecosystem services, such as fisheries. Management of fish stocks is a challenge task and understanding plankton dynamics is an important piece of this puzzle. Modelling is a valuable tool to make predictions and are commonly used to investigate plankton. Here, we evaluated why plankton models vary in complexity and the consequent effects of it on model robustness, providing a friendly beginner’s guide for future plankton modellers, and described plankton modelling studies around the globe, highlighting the lack of modelling studies in Brazil.

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33 - Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Spondias tuberosa Arruda Bark: Hematological, Biochemical and Histopathological Evaluation
Authors: Humberto M. Barbosa, Jailson N. do Nascimento, Thiago A.S. Araújo, Filipe S. Duarte, Ulysses P. Albuquerque, Jeymesson R.C. Vieira, Edson R.B. de Santana, Ricardo Yara, Cláudia S.A. Lima, Dayane A. Gomes and Eduardo C. Lira

The widely use of medicinal plants has been limited by a lack of defined toxicological profile to evaluate their safety. Spondias tuberosa Arruda, popularly known as umbu, is native from savanna-like vegetation and widely used for medicinal purposes. Considering the importance of S. tuberosa in folk medicine, human nutrition and its pharmacological potential makes this toxicological evaluation on it imperative. Here, these results suggest that S. tuberosa did not cause acute toxicity and cytotoxic, suggesting a good safety rate for this species.

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34 - Inhibition of proteases and phospholipases A2 from Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms by ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins
Authors: Carlos H.M. Oliveira, Anderson A. Simão, Marcus V.C. Trento, Pedro H.S. César and Silvana Marcussi

Ophidism is a public health problem due to the incidence and severity of its effects. The enzyme inhibition by natural and low-cost compounds may represent an adjuvant to antiophidic serum therapy performed in cases of snakebite. It was demonstrated in this study, the inhibitory effect of vitamins upon toxic activities induced by snake venoms from Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus. The data obtained suggested the presence of interactions between vitamins and enzymes like proteases and phospholipases, for example by means of binding of vitamins in the hydrophobic regions or the catalytic site, as well as inhibitions by antioxidant mechanism.

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35 - New Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) from Brazil and a key for the Neotropical species
Authors: Viviane R. de Sousa and Márcia S. Couri

Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) is a genus of leaf mining flies, including species with high economic importance. This paper describes two new Agromyza species from “Pantanal” and “Cerrado” biomes from Brazil and also present a taxonomic key to segregate the 14 Neotropical species. The specimens were collected in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states during periodic expeditions of the “SISBIOTA Diptera” project. The material are deposited at Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) collections.

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