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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 88 (3) - September 2016


The present issue of the AABC has a total of 36 contributions, all original studies in a variety of fields. Contrary to previous volumes where Biological Sciences predominate, the majority of papers published here focuses on Biomedical Sciences (10) followed by Earth Sciences (9) and Chemical Sciences (7).

Among the most interesting articles of this issue is the study of the molecules that are present on the surface of the cells of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic protozoan that causes Chagas disease. Researchers are trying to understand the chemical structure of the glycoconjugates, which have the potential to provide better effective treatments against this terrible disease that affects populations around the world. Other significant articles on Biomedical Sciences discuss the relation between capsular contracture and silicone breast implants, the cytotoxic activity on cancer cells of salty liquid synthetic flavorings, and bioactive substances of a plant species commonly found in mangrove areas.


Another important study is on the 2009 earthquake that affected the Pantanal area in Brazil, showing that this region is seismically active. Still in Earth Sciences, this issue of the AABC shows two paleontological studies (one on clupeomorph Cretaceous fishes and another on primitive Triassic reptiles), the research on phytoplankton structure in a beach from the Amazon Costal Zone, and an analysis of the tidal characteristics in one area in northeastern Brazil.

In Chemical Sciences, this volume shows a study on the chemical composition and floral fragrances analyzed by Headspace/GC-MS methods, a detailed analysis of sugarcane aiming to obtain substances with anticancer activity, and an efficient way of removing textile dye from aqueous solutions.

Other articles that can be highlighted are studies on injuries coursed by fished in the Pantanal region and an epidemiological analysis of Hepatitis B in the State of Espírito Santo (Health Sciences), the assessment of the quality of Brazilian blueberry wine (Agrarian Sciences), and studies regarding science communication in Brazil and comments on Nature Index, a new scientometric tool (Social Sciences).

Please, keep in mind that since 2000 all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site and previous editions of the Newsletter are available at the ABC website.

We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner






1-Multivariate optimization of method for antimony determination by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry in hair samples of patients undergoing chemotherapy against Leishmaniasis
Authors: Manuelle C. Cardozo, Dannuza D. Calvacante, Daniel L.F. Silva, Walter N.L. dos Santos and Marcos A. Bezerra

This manuscript approaches the use of multivariate designs (constrained mixture and Doehlert designs) in the development of an analytical method for total antimony determination in hair samples. These samples were collected from patients undergoing chemotherapy against Leishmaniasis based on the administration of pentavalent antimonial drugs. The method is based on the microwave assisted digestion of the samples in a pressurized system, reduction of Sb5+ to Sb3+ with KI solution (10% w/v) in ascorbic acid (2 %, w/v) and its subsequent determination by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Antimony can be determined with limit of quantification of 4.6 ng g-1.

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2-Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace
Authors: Daniel A.V. Montero, Marcia Ortiz M. Marques, Laura M.M. Meletti, Maria H. Van Kampen and Sandra C. Polozzi

The article describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Passiflora edulis, Passiflora alata, Passiflora cincinnata, Passiflora coccinea, Passiflora quadrangularis. The floral fragrances of the passionflowers were described by professional perfumer and analyzed by Headspace/GC-MS methods. The chemical composition of the floral fragrances showed interspecific diversity. P. alata and P. quadrangularis presents potential for use in fragrances industry.

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3-Phenolic compounds and anticancer activity of commercial sugarcane cultivated in Brazil
Authors: Vanessa G. Alves, Alan G. Souza, Lucas U.R. Chiavelli, Ana L.T.G. Ruiz, João E. Carvalho, Armando M. Pomini and Cleuza C. Silva

Saccharum x officinarum is a multi-strain hybrid belonging to Poaceae family, it is popularly known as sugarcane and is one of the largest crops in Brazil. In addition to their broad commercial use, the literature reports medicinal properties to Saccharum x  officinarum as anti-hypertensive, and for treatment of osteoporose, which are related to the stem part of the plant population used in the preparation of juice. The chemical study of leaves and stalks of sugarcane resulted in the isolation and identification of the flavone, among other phenolic substances. Bioassays were performed with fractions and the isolated flavonoid against human cancer cells.

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4-Sawdust Derivative for Environmental Application: Chemistry, Functionalization and Removal of textile dye from aqueous solution
Authors: Thais F. Pinto, Cícero W.B. Bezerra, Domingos S.A. Silva, Edson C. da Silva Filho, Adriana P. Vieira, Claudio Airoldi, Júlio C.P. de Melo, Hildo A.S. Silva and Sirlane A.A. Santana

During the latest years many articles have been published about adsorption of dyes, indicating that this research field is important and has many challenges to overcome. This work concerns with this current issue and describes the best conditions for modification and use of an abundant byproduct, wood sawdust, as a remover of Violet Remazol, a widely used textile dye. As for the work highlights, it is emphasized that the chemical route modification did not involve the use of solvents; the modified adsorbent was thoroughly characterized and successfully employed for the removal of such dye, and some mechanistic aspects of adsorption were considered.

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5-Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae) and selected monoterpenes
Authors: Roberta C.S. Neves and Claudio A.G. da Camara

The 13-epi-dolabradiene is reported for the first time in the oil from the leaves and fruit of Vitex agnus-castus that is growing wild in Pernambuco, Brazil. Acaricidal properties of leaves and fruit essential oils led to different degrees of susceptibility of mites depending of mode of action or means of application. Our investigation showed the toxicity of V. agnus-castus oils can be attributed to an individual constituent, 1,8-cineole; α-terpinyl acetate and β-caryophyllene or its percentage in the oil and other factors, such as synergic and antagonistic interactions among the different constituents and their proportional relationship in the oil.

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6-Validation of a liquid chromatography ultraviolet method for determination of herbicide diuron and its metabolites in soil samples
Authors: Ana Lucia S.M. Felicio, Alessandra M. Monteiro, Mariana B. Almeida, Tiago B. Madeira, Suzana L. Nixdorf and Maria Josefa S. Yabe

Since the persistence of diuron herbicide and its by-products in ecosystems involves risk of toxicity to environment and human health, a reliable quantitative method for monitoring of these compounds is required. A simple method without preconcentration step was validated for simultaneous quantitation of diuron and its main metabolites by HPLC-UV. Chromatographic separation was performed in less than 11 minutes using a C18 column and mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water (45:55 v/v). The method proved to be linear, specific, accurate, precise and may be considered as a potential tool to monitoring of diuron and its metabolites in environment.

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7-Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimolla Mill.) and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques
Authors: Walter N.L. dos Santos, Maria Celeste S. Sauthier, Dannuza D. Cavalcante, Clícia M.J. Benevides, Fábio S. Dias and Daniele C.M.B. Santos

The atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.) is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya with sweet sop. The information about its chemical composition is scarce, thus this paper evaluated the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of the atemoya. The determination of  minerals by ICP OES gave a satisfactory quantification of macro and microelements. The high content of: K, Cu, Mg, Vitamin C and carbohydrates  found reveals that it is a good dietary supplement. The total phenolic and total flavonoids content in atemoya fruit shows its antioxidant potential. The PCA discriminated the atemoya samples by the maturity stage according to their mineral composition.

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8-The 2009 earthquake, magnitude 4.8 Mb, in the Pantanal Wetlands, west-central Brazil
Authors: Fábio L. Dias, Marcelo Assumpção, Edna M. Facincani, George S. França, Mario L. Assine, Antônio C. Paranhos Filho and Roberto M. Gamarra

This paper characterizes the mb 4.8, MMV earthquake, occurred in 2009 in the Pantanal Basin. The depth was 6 km within the basement. A thrust fault mechanism with lateral motion was obtained by P-wave polarities and regional waveform modelling with P-axis orientation approximately NE-SW. The results are similar to the earthquake of 1964 with Mb 5.4 and NE-SW compressional axis. Both show Pantanal as a seismically active, under compressional stress and both have no plane that could be directly associated with the main SW-NE trending Transbrasiliano system, i.e., a direct link between the Transbrasiliano with the seismicity is improbable.

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9-Circulation and suspended sediment dynamics in a tropical estuary under different morphological setting
Authors: Bárbara P. Paiva, Carlos A.F. Schettini, Marçal D. Pereira, Eduardo Siegle, Luiz B. Miranda and Fernando P. Andutta

This study presents the first assessment of the physical processes that govern the Itanhém estuary, southern Bahia. The estuarine channel is controlled by cyclic morphological changes due to spit breaching, with the formation of a new inlet that results in the shortening of the estuarine channel. We assessed the estuarine hydrodynamics under two distinct morphological conditions, with the elongated spit in 2007 and after the inlet opening in 2008. Findings show that the estuarine circulation is not much affected, although an important increase in suspended sediments is observed after the opening of the new channel.

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10-Relationships of †Codoichthys carnavalii Santos, 1994 (Teleostei, Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes) from the Late Aptian of São Luís-Grajaú Basin, NE Brazil
Authors: Francisco J. de Figueiredo and Douglas R.M. Ribeiro

In this paper we have reassessed the clupeomorph fish †Codoichthys carnavalii from the Codó Formation, State of Maranhão, furnishing new data and additional restorations. Its relationships are explored based on a matrix containing 30 taxa and 60 unordered and unweight characters. As a result, the monophyly of †Ellimmichthyiformes is weakly supported. Within †Paraclupeidae, †Codoichthys is sister-group of remaining †paraclupeids (including †thorectichthyines and †paraclupeines). Within †Paraclupeinae, †Triplomystini includes a †Triplomystus clade, a sister group of †Rhombichthys plus †Tycheroichthys, and †Paraclupeini with †S. itapagipensis and remaining †ellimmichthyiform taxa.

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11-On the presence of the subnarial foramen in Prestosuchus chiniquensis (Pseudosuchia: Loricata) with remarks on its phylogenetic distribution
Authors: Lúcio Roberto-da-Silva, Marco A.G. França, Sérgio F. Cabreira, Rodrigo T. Müller and Sérgio Dias-da-Silva

The subnarial fenestra to archosauriformes is investigated here. It probably arose independently in Erythrosuchus, Herrerasaurus, and Paracrocodylomorpha. In Paracrocodylomorpha the subnarial foramen is oval-shaped, placed in the middle height of the main body of the maxilla, and does not reach the height of ascending process. In basal loricatans from South America (Prestosuchus chiniquensis and Saurosuchus galilei) the subnarial foramen is ‘drop-like’ shaped, the subnarial foramen is located above the middle height of the main body of the maxilla, reaching the height of ascending process, a condition also present in Herrerasaurus. These results suggest this structure is phylogenetically important in Archosauria.

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12-Structure and temporal variation of the phytoplankton of a macrotidal beach from the Amazon coastal zone
Authors: Jislene B. Matos, Suellen M.O. de Oliveira, Luci C.C. Pereira and Rauquírio M. da Costa

This study analyzed the structure and the temporal variation of the phytoplankton of one of the most touristic Amazon beaches (Ajuruteua beach, Bragança, Pará). We identified 110 taxa, which were distributed among diatoms, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, with the dominance of neritic species, followed by the tychoplankton species. Chlorophyll-a concentrations and phytoflagellates density were the highest during the rainy period, whereas total phytoplankton was higher in the dry. Overall, we have observed that rainfall and strong local hydrodynamics play an important role in the dynamic of the phytoplankton of Ajuruteua beach, by influencing both environmental and biological variables.

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13-Morphometry and mixing regime of a tropical lake: Lake Nova (Southeastern Brazil)
Authors: Monica A. Gonçalves, Fábio C. Garcia and Gilberto F. Barroso

Brazilian natural lakes are shallow systems showing dynamic functioning pattern, while less common deep lakes are intermittent. Lake morphometry and climate help the understanding of spatial and temporal variability of lake thermal features, gases and nutrients distribution, as well as lake primary productivity. The relationships of Lake Nova morphometry (Area: 15.5 km2, Zmax: 33.9 m, Zmean: 14.7 m), local climate data, and rivers inflows from lake watershed (394.6 km2), help to understand the monomitc and hypoxic bottom waters, and long term water retention time (13.4 y) patterns of this lacustrine ecosystem located in the Lower Doce River Valley (ES).

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14-Behavior and identification of ephemeral sand dunes at the backshore zone using video images
Authors: Pedro V. Guimarães, Pedro S. Pereira, Lauro J. Calliari and Jean T. Ellis

On dissipative beaches, the formation of ephemeral dunes over the backshore zone plays significant contribution in the beach morphodynamics and sediment budget. In this work we describe a novel method to identify ephemeral dunes in the backshore region and to discuss their morphodynamic behavior. The ephemeral dunes are identified using Argus video imagery system, which reveals the behavior of this morphologies at Cassino Beach, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

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15-Tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability at the northern shelf of the Brazilian Northeast Region
Authors: Felipe F. Frota, Eliane C. Truccolo and Carlos A.F. Schettini

Tidal characteristics (amplitude and period) can be efficiently described in terms of tidal harmonic constituents. Tides are usually described based on its main tidal constituents, and little regard is taken about the annual variability of these ones. We investigate the annual variability of tidal constituents from three years of continuous water level records at Fortaleza (CE, Brazil). Our findings highlight the fact that the annual tidal variability is noticeable, e.g., the tidal height between consecutive neap/spring tides can vary from 0.1 to 1 m; and the form number, a commonly used tidal descriptor, can vary as much as 50% along the year.

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16-Modeling the reflection of Photosynthetically active radiation in a monodominant floodable forest in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State using multivariate statistics and neural networks
Authors: Leone F.A. Curado, Carlo R. de Musis, Cristiano R. da Cunha, Thiago R. Rodrigues, Vinicius M.R. Pereira, José S. Nogueira and Luciana Sanches

The study of radiation entrance and exit dynamics and energy consumption in a system is important for understanding the environmental processes that rule the biosphere-atmosphere interactions of all ecosystems. This study provides an analysis of the interaction of energy in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Pantanal, a Brazilian wetland forest, by studying the variation of PAR reflectance and its interaction with local rainfall. The results showed a high correlation between the reflection of visible radiation and rainfall; however, the behavior was not the same at the three heights studied.

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17-What the largest tadpole feeds on? A detailed analysis of the diet composition of Pseudis minuta tadpoles (Hylidae, Dendropsophini)
Authors: Sônia Huckembeck, Lívia T. Alves, Daniel Loebmann and Alexandre M. Garcia

Although the diet of post-metamorphic individuals from the genus Pseudis is relatively well known, no studies on diet of Pseudis minuta tadpoles have been performed so far. Herein, we provide data on diet of P. minuta tadpoles from southern Brazil. The diet was mainly composed by diatoms, euglenids, green algae, desmids and detritus. We found a negative correlation between the abundance of food items and the mouth width indicating an effect of metamorphosis on the diet. Based on the diversity of items in the diet we concluded that P. minuta tadpoles can be considered a generalist consumer.

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18-The classic episode of biological invasion: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) versus Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) – evaluation of the biotic potential
Authors: Leandro S. Barbosa, Márcia S. Couri, Valéria M.A. Coelho and Fernanda Avelino-Capistrano

Interspecific competition occurs when different species compete for the same ecological niche in the same place. As the interspecific competition affects the population dynamics of the species involved, distribution of species and their evolution can also be influenced, since it will undergo reduction in the survival rate, growth or fertility. Since 1979 studies in Brazil indicate a population decline of C. macellaria and their ecological displacement due to invasion of exotic fly C. megacephala. This paper aims to reach to a better understanding about this phenomenon, comparing the reproductive potential of these two species.

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19-Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Authors: Sheila P. Carvalho-Fernandes, Sharlene Ascendino, Valéria C. Maia and Márcia S. Couri

Galls are abnormal modifications in plant tissue induced by insects or mites. Surveys in restingas of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state, from June 2011 to May 2012. 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. All the six insect orders with galling species were found and Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. The richness of galls reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall inducing insect fauna.

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20-Are salty liquid food flavorings in vitro antitumor substances?
Authors: Francisco R.S. Carvalho, Antonio G. Moura, Gardenia F. Rodrigues, Narcia M.F. Nunes, Daisy J.B. Lima, Claudia Pessoa, Marcilia P. Costa, Paulo M.P. Ferreira and Ana Paula Peron

This study evaluated the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of salty liquid synthetic flavorings of Butter, Cheddar Cheese and Onion. Only Butter and Cheddar flavorings revealed cytotoxic activity on cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 125.4 µg/mL (Cheddar - HCT-116 cells) to 402.6 µg/mL (Butter - OVCAR-8 cells). Butter flavoring was the most cytotoxic on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (136.3 µg/mL) and increased cell division rate in relation to the mitotic index. Onion and Cheddar flavorings reduced the mitotic index after 24h and 48h exposure, but only Onion flavoring resulted in cellular aberrations and mitotic spindle abnormalities.

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21-Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice
Authors: Dayane K.D. Nascimento, Ivone A. de Souza, Antônio F.M. de Oliveira, Mariana O. Barbosa, Marllon A.N. Santana, Daniel F. Pereira Júnior, Eduardo C. Lira and Jeymesson R.C. Vieira

Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

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22-Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons
Authors: Waleska B. Martins, Sheyla A. Rodrigues, Hatamy K. Silva, Camila G. Dantas, Waldecy de Lucca Júnior, Lauro Xavier Filho, Juliana C. Cardoso and Margarete Z. Gomes

The Portulaca oleracea L. is a plant that presents cathecolamines in its chemical composition and could be a new potential strategy for Parkinson’s disease. Here we showed that oral administration of P. oleracea ethanolic and aqueous extracts was protective against dopaminergic cell death, assessed by tyrosine-hydroxylase immunohistochemistry, and behavioral impairments after striatal 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion in rats. As the extracts presented potent antioxidant activity in vitro, it can be postulated that neuroprotective actions of P. oleracea in the 6-hydroxydopamine model was mediated, at least in part, by antioxidant means.

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23-Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis as inducer of immunity in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
Authors: Tatiana R. Pavan, Cristian O. Nied, Mirela Noro, Deniz Anziliero, Rafael Frandoloso and Luiz Carlos Kreutz

Fish farming increased dramatically in the last decades to support the demand for meat of a constantly growing human population. However, water-borne pathogens have become a major threat and fish vaccination stands out as an important tool to reduce the risks of disease outbreaks. A major challenge is to find new molecules that improve fish resistance to pathogens and boost the effects of vaccines. In our work we found that inactivated Parapoxvirus of sheep stimulated fish defense mechanisms and improved the production of antibodies to an inoculated vaccine. Now we aim to find the virus components involved in this immune-modulating mechanism.

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24-Capsular Contracture In Silicone Breast Implants: Insights From Rat Models
Authors: Vilberto J. Vieira, Armando D'acampora, Fernanda S. Neves, Paulo R. Mendes, Zulmar A. de Vasconcellos, Rodrigo d’Eça Neves and Claudia P. Figueiredo

Breast augmentation with silicone implants is one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons around the world. Capsular contracture is a frequent complication in breast augmentation and reconstructive surgery, that requires invasive intervention. The inflammatory response to implanted mammary prostheses appears to be directly associated to capsular contracture. This review discusses the evidences from rat models studies, on the role of inflammation and fibrosis in capsular contraction and its relation to silicone breast implants surface.

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25-Bioactivities of the ethanol extract from Ageratum fastigiatum branches: antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory
Authors: Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira, Bruna C.S. Santos, Maria Silvana Alves, Aílson L.A. Araújo, Célia H. Yamamoto, Míriam A.O. Pinto, Maria Auxiliadora C. Kaplan and Orlando V. Sousa

Ageratum fastigiatum (Asteraceae), known as “matapasto”, is found in Brazil and indicated as cicatrizing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from A. fastigiatum branches. This extract revealed antioxidant and antinociceptive effects using different methods. The anti-inflammatory activity was showed by reduction of paw edema, exudate volume and leucocyte mobilization. These results suggest that A. fastigiatum can be an active source of substances with antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, adding scientific support to the appropriate use in the Brazilian folk medicine.

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26-Macrophages as target cells for Mayaro virus infection: involvement of reactive oxygen species in the inflammatory response during virus replication
Authors: Mariana G. Cavalheiro, Leandro Silva da Costa, Holmes S. Campos, Letícia S. Alves, Iranaia Assunção-Miranda and Andrea T. da Poian

Viral arthritides are acute diseases that may progress to long lasting incapacitating arthropathies. Alphaviruses are among the viruses that cause arthritis in humans, being Mayaro virus (MAYV) the only arthritogenic alphavirus endemic of South America. The article by Cavalheiro et al. opens up the research in MAYV-induced pathology. The authors demonstrated that macrophages, key players in arthritis development, are target cells for MAYV, with virus replication leading to ROS production followed by TNF secretion. The data suggest that oxidative stress is involved in tissue damage during MAYV-induced arthritis, opening new perspectives in the search for therapeutic targets for this disease.

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27-Nasal carriage of resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a medical students community
Authors: Carolina Y. Gushiken, Liliane B. Medeiros, Bruna P. Correia, Joyce M. Souza, Daniela V. Moris, Valeria C. Pereira, Rogerio Giuffrida and Marcus V.P. Rodrigues

For the assessment of phenotypic resistance, from 42 samples of Staphylococcus aureus, 95.2% showed resistance to erythromycin, 42.8% to clindamycin, 16.6% to cephoxitin and 9.5% to oxacillin. The D test showed that 26.2% of samples were resistant to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B. The evaluation of a genotypic resistance profile, showed 16.6% of the samples were positive for the mecA gene, 35.7% positive for the ermC gene or ermA gene and 28.5% were positive for both genes. These results demonstrate that medical students can enter the healthcare service previously colonized by multidrug resistant strains.

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28-Technique of spinal cord compression induced by inflation of epidural balloon catheter in rabbits (Oryctologus cuniculus): efficient and easy to use model
Authors: Antonio F.B. da Fonseca, Jussara P. Scheffer, Barbara P. Coelho, Graciane Aiello, Arthur G. Guimarães, Carlos R.B. Gama, Victor Vescovini, Paula G.A. Cabral and André L.A. Oliveira

The most common cause of spinal cord injury are high impact trauma. In terms of survival and complications due to sequelae, veterinary patients have a poor prognosis unfavorable. Therefore justified the study of experimental models of spinal cord injury production that could provide more support to research potential treatments for spinal cord injuries in medicine and veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of acute spinal cord injury production technique through inflation of Fogarty® catheter using rabbits as an experimental model. The technique was adequate for performing preclinical studies in neuro-traumatology area.

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29-Expanding the knowledge of the chemical structure of glycoconjugates from Trypanosoma cruzi TcI genotype. Contribution to taxonomic studies
Authors: Leonardo M. Fonseca, Tatiana C. Garcez, Luciana Penha, Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Emmanuel Maes, Kelli M. Costa, Lucia Mendonça-Previato and Jose O. Previato

Chagas disease affects millions of people around the world, causing the loss of over a billion dollars every year. T. cruzi, like all cells, exhibits on its surface a great number of molecules, including glycoconjugates. These molecules have important roles regarding parasite survival and potential to promote important alterations in the host organism. It is by studying the structure and function of those molecules that we stand gain a better understanding of the parasite. It is our hope that this study, and others like it, lead the way to the development of new diagnostic tools and effective treatments.

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30-Injuries caused by the venomous catfish pintado and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma genus) in fishermen of the Pantanal region in Brazil
Authors: Giuliano N.R. de Aquino, Celso C. de Souza, Vidal Haddad Junior and José Sabino

The fishing activity throughout the Upper Paraguay River Basin has huge financial and biological importance. This retrospective study investigated the injuries caused by fish of the Pseudoplatystoma genus (spotted catfish or pintado and striped catfish or cachara) in professional fishermen of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul State. We observed 126 fishermen in Miranda town and 38 individuals reported injuries. In Corumbá town, 111 of 355 reported injuries. The lacerated lesions were the most common, associate with edema, erythema, radiating pain to the root of the limb, paresthesias and local necrosis. Rarely, they reported the occurrence of fever, cardiac arrhythmias and cold sweating. These manifestations may be associated with late secondary infections or envenomations caused by the toxins in the stingers of the fish. Many questionable and inappropriate treatments are used, sometimes aggravating the injuries. In according to the data, the freshwater professional fishermen suffer injuries by these venomous fish with great frequency and prevention of injuries and the treatament used for the envenomation are not the adequate. 

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31-Decreased inflammatory response in rat bladder after intravesical administration of capsaicin-loaded liposomes
Authors: Lorena M.D. Cirino, Daviane M.C. Vergne, Patrícia F. Santana, Enrik de  Almeida, Luiz P. da Costa, Ricardo L.C. de Albuquerque-Júnior, Isabel B. Lima-Verde, Francine F. Padilha and Juliana C. Cardoso

Capsaicin, an active chemical component present in chili pepper, is widely used to treat urinary incontinence. However, capsaicin exhibits irritating properties. Therefore, in our study, we investigated decreased inflammation in rat bladder by encapsulating capsaicin in liposomes. Wistar rats were subjected to intravesical instillation of liposomes, capsaicin extracted from peppers (CAP), or liposomes with capsaicin (CAPLIP). Histological analysis of the CAP group showed intense inflammation and ulceration in almost all bladder layers. However, the CAPLIP group showed a smooth inflammatory reaction and hyperemia. Our results indicate that liposomes effectively protected the bladder against the irritative action of capsaicin.

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32-Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in the cities of the northern region of Espírito Santo, Brazil
Authors: André M. Fontes, Juliana S. Ardisson, Marco A.A. Souza, Rodrigo R. Freitas and João A.T. Pancoto

Hepatitis B is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The cities of the northern region of the state of Espírito Santo are located in regions with little health infrastructure. Our study performed an epidemiological analysis of cases of Hepatitis B in São Mateus, using methodology of Geographic Information System (GIS), aiming to raise the number of disease cases, establishing preventive measures to control the disease. The major forms of contact with HBV in these cities were dental treatment, use of injectable medications, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners.

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33-Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine
Authors: Roberta O. Santos, Simone C. Trindade, Luana H. Maurer, Andriely M. Bersch, Claudia K. Sautter and Neidi G. Penna

The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the Brazilian beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product. In this study were produced wines from blueberries and evaluated the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content and sensory parameters. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup provided wines more appreciated in relation to color. The use of glucose syrup also resulted in beverages with higher anthocyanin content, which leads us to conclude that glucose syrup is a good source of chaptalization.

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34-Artificial tritrophic exposure system for environmental risk analysis on aphidophagous predators
Authors: Débora P. Paula, Lucas M. de Souza, David A. Andow, Alex A.T. Cortês de Sousa, Carmen S.S. Pires and Edison R. Sujii

Many new agricultural technologies, such as genetically engineered crops, may harm insect natural enemies, enabling pests to flourish. It is important to be able to assess the risk from these potential stressors before the technology is fully developed using a method that realistically simulates field exposure. We have developed and tested such a method to assess effects on predaceous natural enemies of aphids. It uses an artificial diet on which aphids are raised that predators can eat. Development and survival of the predators was similar to published results, indicating that our method would provide accurate assessments of environmental risk.

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35-Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation
Authors: Luisa Massarani and Ildeu de Castro Moreira

In our paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed in our paper are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed in our paper.

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36-Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science
Author: Valter Silva

This article discusses the Brazilian science based on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index, as well as the SJR. The 2012–2015 change in the main metric of Nature Index showed an increase of 18.9% for Brazil and currently is ranked 24th globally. From 1996 to 2015 Brazilian science has produced more than 600 thousand citable papers, obtained more than 5 million citations, having over 400 papers with at least 400 citations and is responsible by half of Latin America publication output. Despite such numbers, there are flows in its internationalization.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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