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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 88 (1) - March 2016


This is a special year for the Brazilian Academy of Sciences. This institution is now completing its first centenary fostering science in Brazil and abroad, quite an achievement!

The present issue of the Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências - AABC) has 36 articles in a variety of fields including Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Biology, Health Sciences, Agrarian Sciences and Engineering.

Biological Sciences continues to be the area with the majority of the contributions. Among the highlights are ecological studies of bromeligenous frogs, post-embryonic development and diet of insects that might help to establish the post mortem interval in cases of overuse of antibiotics, effects of heavy metals in fish and their consumers (including humans!), and a study of the collaboration networks in the Brazilian Scientific community regarding evolutionary biology. I would also like to mention a study on the pharmacological perspectives of a new compound that might have a variety of applications, including to cancer patients.


In Chemical Sciences there is an interesting article that tries to understand the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the plant commonly known as aveloz. Although quite popular, the fact that it is extensively used without proper medical supervision has shown to be not always benefic.

In Earth Sciences I would like to call your attention to a geological study of the Pampas, region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, using a multidisciplinary approach leading to some very important new results. There is also a paper that describes a new Mammutidae from China and an analysis of the emissions reduction through avoided deforestation (REED+) in the northeastern Amazon region that might help researchers interested in this subject.

Lastly, I would like to mention contributions in Agrarian Sciences that focus on the properties of irrigation water in rice fields, the effect of the tillage system and weed management in soybean production in Iran, and new ways to store apples.

Please keep in mind that since 2000 all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at SciELO and previous editions of the Newsletter are available at: http://migre.me/tK1X8.

We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner




1 - Green method by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and spectral region selection for the quantification of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations

Authors: Fabiana E.B. da Silva, Érico M.M. Flores, Graciele Parisotto, Edson I. Müller and Marco F. Ferrão

An environmental friendly method for the quantification of sulphametoxazole (SMZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and multivariate regression is developed. The partial least square regression (PLS) was developed. Interval Partial Least Square (iPLS) and Synergy Partial Least Square (siPLS) were applied to select a spectral range that provided the lowest prediction error in comparison to the full-spectrum model. Fifteen commercial tablet formulations and forty-nine synthetic samples were used. The proposed procedure was compared to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the results show that the siPLS models are adequate for use in quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical formulations.

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2 - Evaluation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of hydroalchoholic extract of Euphorbia tirucalli (Euphorbiaceae) in cell cultures of human leukocytes

Authors: Michel M. Machado, Luis F.S. de Oliveira, Luisa Zuravski, Raul O. de Souza, Paula Fischer, Jonathaline A. Duarte, Manoelly O. Rocha, Camila M. Güez, Aline A. Boligon and Margareth L. Athayde

Euphorbia tirucalli (L.), commonly known as aveloz, has been indiscriminately used in popular medicine. Our goal was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on human leukocytes. We treated leukocytes with dry extract of the plant and then evaluated the oxidative and genotoxic profiles of these leukocytes and found that at 1% and 10% concentrations, the aveloz extract acted as a genotoxic agent that could damage DNA and increase oxidative damage. Aveloz’s indiscriminate use might actually promote tumors and therefore carry a considerable genetic risk for its users.

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3 - (4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone and other chemical constituents from Pestalotiopsis sp. EJC07, endophytic from Bauhinia guianensis

Authors: Eleane M.C. de Souza, Ellon L. da Silva, Andrey M.R. Marinho and Patrícia S.B. Marinho

The endophytic microorganisms are good producers of secondary metabolites. Fungi of the Pestalotiopsis genus produced several secondary metabolites with biological activity and biotechnological applicability. This genus is broadly distributed, occurring in soil, seeds, fruits and leafs, can be parasite, endophytic or saprobes. Thus, we decided to study the biomass produced by endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. EJC07 isolated from Bauhinia guianensis and this work led to the isolation of the eight known compounds biologically active (4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone, uracil, uridin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide, cerevisterol and ducitol. The (4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone is being reported the first time in the Pestalotiopsis genus.

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4 - Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil) and the surroundings

Authors: Paulo Galvão, Ricardo Hirata, Arnaldo Cordeiro, Daniela Barbati and Jorge Peñaranda

The study was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas. The main objective was to establish a new geological perspective of the region. Geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out obtaining a new geological conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages.

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5 - Analysis of results of biomass forest inventory in northeastern Amazon for development of REDD+ carbono project

Authors: Leonel N.C. Mello, Marcio H.R. Sales and Luiz P. Rosa

Projects of emissions reduction through avoided deforestation (REED+) are an important tool to reduce deforestation rates in Brazil. REDD+ projects development   is complex and requires a lot of information related to forest carbon stock, deforestation rates, deforestation drivers and agents. The aim of this work is to provide information to REDD project developers, about the carbon stocks of the Amazon forest. The results of this work not only help REDD+ project developers with valuable information regarding forest carbon structure, but also how to reduce costs of project implementation.

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6 - A new Mammutidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Gansu Province, China

Authors: Dimila Mothé, Leonardo S. Avilla, Desi Zhao, Guangpu Xie and Boyang Sun

The proboscidean “Yanghecun specimen” was previously described as a new gomphothere from China, and it was recognized as closely related to New World gomphotheres. However, this specimen was reviewed in this study and redescribed as a new genus and species of Mammutidae: Sinomammut tobieni. This taxon has long mandible, without lower tusks, and it has large second and third lower zygodont molars. Phylogenetic analysis recovered S. tobieni as sister group of the genus Mammut, and the longirrostrine condition of the mandible seems to be primitive to Mammutidae.

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7 - Integrated evaluation of the geology, aerogammasperctrometry and aeromagnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, southernmost Brazil

Authors: Léo A. Hartmann, William R. Lopes and Jairo F. Savian

The geology of the pampas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is considered well known. Surprising results obtained from aerogeophysics overcome this presumption and establish a new standard for the evolution and metallogeny of the Sul-Riograndense Shield. New provinces are delimited, previously unrecorded from geological surveys, such as the large extension of the central Porongos schist belt. The Encruzilhada terrane is similar to the Pelotas batholith at the surface but belongs to the Porongos belt at depth. The Caçapava shear is marked in all aerogammaspectrometric and aeromagnetometric maps. The Pelotas batholith consists of several units with different properties. The Santa Maria Chico granulites constitute a circular structure. The understanding of the interplay between aerogeophysics and geology may lead to a boom of ore deposit discovery.

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8 - Ecology of the bromeligenous frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Anura, Hylidae) from three restinga remnants across Brazil’s coast

Authors: Tatiana Motta-Tavares, Thiago Maia-Carneiro, Leonardo F. Dantas, Monique Van Sluys, Fábio H. Hatano, Davor Vrcibradic and Carlos F.D. Rocha

In this study, we analyzed ecological aspects of the bromeligenous hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus from three restinga habitats along the Brazilian coast. Even though the studied populations were up to 160 km apart, P. luteolus had a conservative diet across populations, consuming mainly ants and termites. Females were larger than males, which may be due to intra-sexual selection favoring females with larger clutches and/or larger eggs. Males had proportionally wider jaws than females, which may favor males in defending their bromeliads during disputes, allowing just a few females, juveniles and tadpoles to coexist in a same bromeliad.

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9 - Post-embrionomic development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on a diet containing ampicillin in diferente concentrations

Authors: Adriana C.P. Ferraz, Daniele L. Dallavecchia, Débora C. Silva, Renato G. Silva-Filho and Valéria M. Aguiar

Insects can be used to estimate the post mortem interval (IPM) and the cause of death. Considering patients who undergo an antibiotic regimen or cases of overuse of antibiotics, and the fact that we know little about how and for how long fly larvae accumulate these drugs in their system, and how drugs affect their development, we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of the antibiotic ampicillin on the growth and development of Chrysomya putoria. Ignoring toxicological analyses when calculating the IPM can lead to erroneous estimates. The antibiotic did not appear to significantly alter the development of C. putoria.

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10 - FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae)

Authors: Patricia M. Aguilera, Humberto J. Debat, Marisel A. Scaldaferro, Dardo A. Martí and Mauro Grabiele

The main purpose of this contribution was to achieve a physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in wild and cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. This cytological marker is useful to identify individual chromosomes in order to assist the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm by the evaluation of inter and intraspecific cytogenetic variability. Additionally, the information reported here can be used to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus which undoubtedly will represent a valuable tool for breeding purposes of chili peppers.

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11 - Radiation dose determines the method for quantification of DNA double strand breaks

Authors: Tanja Bulat, Otilija Keta, Lela Korićanac, Jelena Žakula, Ivan Petrović, Aleksandra Ristić-Fira and Danijela Todorović

Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger phosphorylation of the histone protein H2AX (γH2AX). Immunofluorescent staining visualizes formation of γH2AX foci, allowing their quantification. This method, compared to Western blot assay and Flow cytometry, provides more accurate analysis by showing exact position and intensity of fluorescent signal in each single cell. In practice there are problems in quantification of γH2AX. The paper is based on two issues: which quantifying technique should be applied concerning radiation dose and how to analyze fluorescent microscopy images obtained by different microscopes: AxioVision (Zeiss, Germany) comprising ApoTome software and AxioImagerA1 (Zeiss, Germany).

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12 - Bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of a large commercially valuable catfish species from Brazil

Authors: Fábio P. Arantes, Lourenço A. Savassi, Hélio B. Santos, Marcos V.T. Gomes and Nilo Bazzoli

The increasing heavy metals amounts entering aquatic environments can result in high  accumulation levels of these contaminants in fish and their consumers, which poses a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. We investigate the concentrations of  mercury, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of a Pseudoplatystoma corruscans collected from Paraopeba River, Brazil. Our findings indicate that the fishes are contamined and the people should be cautious about regular consumption of fish contamined, such as the freshwater fish with high commercial value, the catfish Surubim.

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13 - Cytisus scoparius (Fam: Fabaceae) in southern Brazil – first step of an invasion process?

Authors: Rodrigo León Cordeiro, Fábio P. Torchelsen, Gerhard E. Overbeck and Madhur Anand

In this work, Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) has been reported for the first time in Brazil, where the species constitute a threat to a diverse array of ecosystems. The early detection of invasive species provides the opportunity to enhance the implementation of efficient responses. This is especially important in the case of the arrival of alien plants, causing significant damage to global biodiversity and economic losses, to vulnerable environments where the species have high probabilities of spreading.

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14 - Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the endophytic actinomycete R18(6) against multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria

Authors: Tiele Carvalho and Sueli Van Der Sand

Actinomycetes are Gram-positive bacteria known for their high physiological metabolism in producing different metabolites with biotechnological interest. Some species of actinomycetes establish a specific relationship with plant tissues and are called endophytic actinomycetes that are promising sources of antimicrobial substances. This study evaluates the activity of metabolites produced by an endophytic actinomycete against Gram-negative bacteria multiresistant to antimicrobials. Isolate grew in submerged cultures under different conditions of carbon source, temperature, pH and incubation time to optimize antimicrobials production. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract produced by the microorganism varied between 1/32 -1/256. It had bactericide or bacteriostatic activity, depending on the organism.

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15 - Collaboration Networks in the Brazilian Scientific Output in Evolutionary Biology: 2000-2012

Authors: Dirce M. Santin, Samile A.S. Vanz and Ida R.C. Stumpf

The article analyzes the collaboration networks in the Brazilian scientific output in Evolutionary Biology between 2000-2012. The methodology integrates bibliometric techniques and Social Network Analysis resources. The results unveil the growth of Brazilian scientific output, as well as an enhancement and consolidation of the collaborative relationships, and show a special dynamic and structure of scientific collaboration over time, also suggesting the existence of key institutions and authors. International collaboration is highly significant and unusual in Brazilian science and indicates the internationalization of scientific output and the ability of the field to take part in the science produced by the international scientific community.

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16 - High temperatures and absence of light affect the hatching of resting eggs of Daphnia in the tropics

Authors: Thécia A.S.V. Paes, Arnola C. Rietzler, Diego G.F. Pujoni and Paulina M. Maia-Barbosa

The knowledge of how temperature and light affect hatching rates of resting eggs is important for the comprehension of the consequences of warming waters in recolonization of aquatic ecosystems. This study compared the influence of different temperature and light conditions on hatching rates of Daphnia ambigua and Daphnia laevis resting eggs from a tropical region. The results showed that the absence of light and high temperatures have a negative influence on the hatching rates and that the local environmental factors are important in/to diapause and maintaining active populations.

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17 - Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca) in liver of Wistar rats

Authors: Thays K. Schaffer, Mariane F. Wohlenberg, Niara Medeiros, Jéssica B. Martins, Fabiana Agostini, Cláudia Funchal and Caroline Dani

The grapevine leaves are frequently useful in several countries, mainly in Europe, in foods and medicines. In Brazil, these leaves are usually discarded as trash by the vinery companies.  In this study, first, we observed that the grape leaves extracts are a polyphenol´s source and the organic one is richer than the conventional, mainly in resveratrol content. In the hepatotoxic animal model, we observed that the grapevine leaves extracts prevent lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and reduce the AST and GGT levels increased by CCl4. These results open a new opportunity to the grapevine producers.

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18 - The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident ininhibition of Group IA sPLA2

Authors: Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya and Sudharshan Shivalingaiah

The standard aqueous stem bark extract of M. indica is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. From this work it was observed that the extract pocessed potent anti-inflammatory activity as it inhibited Group IA secretary Phospholipase A2 activity and its associated inflammatory reactions. It was observed that the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop it into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

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19 - Composition and structure of bird communities in vegetational gradients of Bodoquena Mountains, western Brazil

Authors: Mauricio N. Godoi, Franco L. Souza, Rudi R. Laps and Danilo B. Ribeiro

Data of bird species distribution in different habitats are crucial for bird conservation. We describe the composition, richness and abundance of birds in different habitats at Bodoquena Mountains, western Brazil. We recorded 156 bird species. Woodland savannas, seasonal forests and arboreal savannas had higher bird abundance and richness, while riparian forests, clean pastures and dirty pastures had smaller values of these parameters. The bird community was organized in communities of forests, open areas and savannas, although many species occurred in more than one habitat. These data showed how important habitat diversity is to birds of Bodoquena Mountains.

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20 - DNA damage and cytotoxicity in pathology laboratory technicians exposed to organic solvents

Authors: Tatiane de Aquino, Fernanda F. Zenkner, Joel H. Ellwanger, Daniel Prá and Alexandre Rieger

Pathology laboratory technicians are exposed to organic solvents during their routines of work. In our study, we assessed the levels of DNA damage of these workers in a workweek (on Monday and on Friday) and compared the results with controls. DNA damage in the group exposed to solvents was nearly 2-fold higher on Friday than on Monday. Additionally, in both moments the individuals of this group showed higher levels of DNA damage in relation to controls. Our results suggest that pathology laboratory technicians inappropriately exposed to organic solvents have increased levels of DNA damage and that the weekend rest is associated to a reduction in DNA damage.

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21 - Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of a Geissospermum vellosii stem bark fraction

Authors: Josélia A. Lima, Thiago W.R. Costa, Leandro L. Silva, Ana Luísa P. Miranda and Angelo C. Pinto

In this work indole alkaloids of Geissospermum vellosii (Pao pereira), whose intense anticholinesterase activity had already been shown, significantly reduced mice abdominal constriction induced by acetic acid, the inflammatory pain in the formalin test, antihyperalgesic activity and carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammatory response. These results demonstrate that compounds in PPAC fraction have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity by a mechanism apparently unrelated to the opioid system.

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22 - Plankton community dynamics in a subtropical lagoonal system and related factors

Authors: Letícia Donadel, Luciana de S. Cardoso and Lezilda C. Torgan

This paper is the first investigation on spatial and seasonal changes of a plankton community in a lagoonal system of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, a Ramsar site in southern Brazil. Attributes of the community (richness, diversity, density and biomass) and the relationship between biotic and abiotic variables were studied. Community dynamics are strongly influenced by the exchange of continental and coastal water due to the connection to the Atlantic Ocean. Wind action and precipitation are also important influencing factors.

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23 - Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae)

Authors: Vanessa S. Santos, Vinicius P. Souza, Divina A.A. Vilhalva, Fernanda P.S. Ferreira, José R. Paula and Maria Helena Rezende

Thickened underground systems are frequently reported in the literature as a feature of great ecological importance in several environments, especially cerrado, because they accumulate reserves and promote resprout of new shoots. In this study, it was aimed to describe the morphoanatomy, ontogeny, investigate the occurence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. This species occurs in cerrado, it has rhizophore with the inulin-type fructans and buds that form aerial stems when exposed to light, features that ensure the survival of species in cerrado’s adverse conditions.

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24 - Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells

Authors: Charlene S.C. Garcia, Caroline Menti, Ana Paula F. Lambert, Thiago Barcellos, Sidnei Moura, Caroline Calloni, Cátia S. Branco, Mirian Salvador, Mariana Roesch-Ely and João A.P. Henriques

Investigate new compounds to protect the body against disease associated with oxidative stress, neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer. Hereacids and phenolic compounds were characterized in the Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) extracts and in vitro antioxidant properties were observed. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5) showed selectivity for tumor cell lines, presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Brazilian salvia extracts presented favorable cytotoxic response and its compounds may lead to new drug discovery with reduction of toxic side effects in cancer patients.

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25 - Feeding ecology of Erythrolamprus jaegeri jaegeri (Günter, 1858) and Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Cope, 1860) in the coastal zone of Subtropical Brazil (Serpentes, Dipsadidae)

Authors: Daniele N. Corrêa, Fernando M. Quintela and Daniel Loebmann

The development of different foraging mechanisms to reduce competition for resources is crucial to the co-occurrence of sympatric species. Syntopic in southern Brazil, Erythrolamprus jaegeri jaegeri and Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus differ in niche breadth and selection prey. Whereas E. j. jaegeri is anurophagous specialist, E. p. sublineatus is generalist and opportunist, consuming fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Furthermore, although the overlay prey between species, E. p. sublineatus consumes prey larger in length and weight, which is possible due to their higher SVL. There was a positive correlation between the size and weight of predators and their prey for both species.

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26 - Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae)

Authors: Yanne S. Fernandes, Luma M.P. Trindade, Maria Helena Rezende, José R. Paula and Letícia A. Gonçalves

The name of the genus Trichogonia refers to the characteristic setulae on the angles of the fruits, and the presence of glandular stipitate trichomes on the corolla tube is an important feature in the taxonomy of this genus. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of Trichogonia cinerea, determined the principal events in the development of the glandular trichomes, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. The results obtained in this study may help further taxonomic studies of this family at different taxonomic levels.

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27 - Paraconsistents artificial neural networks applied to the study of mutational patterns of the F subtype of the viral strains of HIV-1 to antiretroviral therapy

Authors: Paulo C.C. dos Santos, Helder F.S. Lopes, Rosana Alcalde, Cláudio R. Gonsalez, Jair M. Abe and Luis F. Lopez

The high level of variability of the HIV-1 virus, among other factors, is the result of the absence of repairing mechanisms during replication, and it strongly contributes to the establishment of resistance to antiretroviral therapy. The main goal of this study is to develop and implement an intelligent database, using the concept of Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Network (PANN) based on the Paraconsistent Annotated Logic Eτ, in order to support the mapping of the information coming from different medical records produced. The database will be used primarily, to support the decision process on the antiretroviral therapy prescription. The results obtained during the research show that the technique may become a promising tool.

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28 - Antioxidant effect of simvastatin throught oxidative imbalance caused by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate

Authors: Guilherme A. Eger, Vinícius V. Ferreira, Camila R. Batista, Henrique Bonde, Daniela D. de Lima, Angela T.S. Wyse, Júlia N. da Cruz, André F. Rodrigues, Débora D. Dal Magro and José G.P. da Cruz

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is a novel pro-drug approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults. However, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate administration causes an oxidative imbalance determined by an increment in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain areas. Our results suggest that simvastatin is able to reduce most of these effects. In view of the central role played by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the established antioxidant effect of simvastatin therapy is of major interest.

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29 - Investigation of potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cellular stability after the exposure of agricultural workers to pesticides

Authors: Jodel S. Alves, Fernanda R. da Silva, Gabrieli F. da Silva, Mirian Salvador, Kátia Kvitko, Paula Rohr, Carla E.I. dos Santos, Johnny F. Dias, João A.P. Henriques and Juliana da Silva

Genotoxicity in tobacco farmers exposed to large quantities of pesticides was evaluated in this study. Our results demonstrated DNA damage by Comet assay and MN test, and increases of SOD activity and concentrations of inorganic elements in the farmers. A modulation of the MN results for the PON1 gene was observed in the exposed group. In this study, we observed that genetic damage, and change in oxidative balance were induced by the exposure of workers to complex mixtures of pesticides in the presence of inorganic compounds, whereby an influence of the genotype was evident.

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30 - Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil

Authors: Maria Helena L.R. Reche, Vilmar Machado, Danilo A. Saul, Vera R.M. Macedo, Elio Marcolin, Neiva Knaak and Lidia M. Fiuza

The study aimed to evaluate the water quality before and after the irrigation of rice field in two regions in Southern Brazil. Results: (i) With the exception of turbidity, all the other variables showed reductions of the concentrations after the passage through the rice field; (ii) The biological quality of the water drained after the irrigation of rice field could be classified as Class 1; (iii) The two regions studied had similar parameters; (iv) parameters that undergo alterations between the irrigation and drainage water, and between the phenological phases of the plants, vary from one region to another.

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31 - Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean (Glycin Max L.)

Authors: Seyed Z. Hosseini, Saeed Firouzi, Hashem Aminpanah and Hamid R. Sadeghnejhad

Tillage system and weed management have significant impacts on crop yield and weed population. Results of a field experiment in Golestan Province of Iran showed that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass in soybean (Glycin max L.). Regardless of weed management regime, the greatest grain yield was recorded for No-till row crop seeding, and the highest grain yield was recorded for weed regime of herbicide application + hand weeding as averaged across the tillage systems.

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32 - Sward structure and nutritive value of Alexandergrass fertilized with nitrogen

Authors: Paulo R. Salvador, Luciana Pötter, Marta G. Rocha, Anelise P. Hundertmarck, Maria José O. Sichonany, Luiz G. Amaral, Mateus Negrini and Paulo H. Moterle

The forage production, sward structure, stocking rate, weight gain per area and nutritive value of forage as grazed by beef heifers on Urochloa plantaginea (Link) Hitch fertilized with nitrogen (N): 0; 100; 200 or 300 kg of N/ha were evaluated. N utilization, increase by 25% the daily forage accumulation rate. The level of 97.2 kg N/ha leads to a higher leaf mass and increases by 20% the leaf:stem ratio. Alterations in sward structure changes the nutritive value of forage as grazed. The utilization of 112.7 kg of N/ha allows higher stocking rate (2049.8 kg of BW/ha).

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33 - First report of multiple anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of sheep in Colombia

Authors: Carlos M.B. Gárcia, Lew K. Sprenger, Efraín B. Ortiz and Marcelo B. Molento

Although the maintenance of animal health is a priority worldwide, parasite infections are ubiquitous and control is necessary. Most frequently, producers use vast amounts of chemicals to avert production loss. As a consequence, parasite populations have been selected to tolerate all the commercial anthelmintics in many countries. Colombia has a promising animal industry and preventive diagnostic of drug efficacy is necessary. Our objective was to determine the efficacy for ivermectin, moxidectin, albendazole, fenbendazole, and levamisole in 4 sheep farms. As expected, this article reports for the first time the failure of all products to control the blood-sucking Haemonchus contortus infection.

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34 - Ethanol reduces ripering of ‘Royal Gala’ apples stored in controlled atmosphere

Authors: Anderson Weber, Auri Brackmann, Vanderlei Both, Elizandra P. Pavanello, Rogerio O. Anese and Márcio R.W. Schorr

Apple storage in hypoxia conditions, such as employed in controlled atmosphere (CA), with O2 set below as 1.2 kPa, produces low amount of anaerobic metabolism products, which if not in excess may preserve fruit quality. Therefore, we tested exogenous application of ethanol and acetaldehyde, two products of fermentation, on ‘Royal Gala’ apple stored in CA. Postharvest ethanol treatment response is dose dependent. Application of 0.3 mL ethanol Kg-1 apple month-1 reduced ethylene production and fruit softening. However, higher dose of ethanol and acetaldehyde application depreciate the apple quality during CA storage.

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35 - Influence of mass transfer on bubble plume hydrodynamics

Authors: Iran E. Lima Neto and Priscila A.B. Parente

This study presents an integral model to evaluate the impact of gas transfer on the hydrodynamics of unstratified bubble plumes. The results revealed a relevant impact when fine bubbles are considered, even for moderate water depths. Model simulations also indicated that for weak bubble plumes, both dissolution and turbulence can affect plume hydrodynamics. For deeper water conditions, simulations of bubble dissolution/expansion using the present model and classical models available in the literature resulted in a very good agreement for both aeration and oxygenation processes. Lastly, dimensionless correlations were proposed to assess the impact of mass transfer on plume hydrodynamics.

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36 - Improvement on the concentrated grape juice physic-chemical characteristics by an enzymatic treatment and Membrane Separation Processes

Authors: Plínio R.F. Campos, Aparecido N. Módenes, Fernando R. Espinoza-Quiñones, Daniela E.G. Trigueros, Sueli T.D. Barros and Nehemias C. Pereira

Based on two enzymes (Novozym 33095® and Ultrazym AFP L®), the improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics was investigated. The best experimental condition of an enzymatic treatment followed by membrane separation processes (MSP) was found. Additionally, MSP influence on permeate flux and clarified grape juice quality was assessed as well as the fouling mechanism for designing more efficient filtration processes. An enzymatic treatment along with MSP has shown an alternative and efficient grape juice processing system, being possible to extend to other foods.

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