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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 87 (2) - June 2015


On behalf of the editorial board of the Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (AABC), I am very proud to introduce the second issue of this year: it is the largest ever published by the AABC, with 55 original contributions! This demonstrates the great effort of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences to keep increasing the AABC allowing the publication of important papers in all areas of scientific research. We all hope that such initiative represent significant contribution for the development of science worldwide.

Again, choosing the highlights among the contributions is a hard task and only a few can be briefly mentioned here (more details of all papers are found in the list below). Among the contributions, that will surely catch the readers eye, is the discussion about energy trends, particularly for countries like Brazil, that face the dilemma of how to develop their energy matrices having the water vs. energy nexus in mind.


Talking about water, this issue of the AABC publishes an interesting study about the water balance of the Guarani Aquifer System. In the present days when water is a major concern worldwide, performing experimental work to raise questions about the factors that can affect groundwater levels is paramount to allow future mitigation of this kind of problem.

Another excellent paper concerns the response of mangroves to climate change and how coastal areas are affected. Furthermore, the reader can find contributions discussing strategies to extract DNA from nematodes communities, genetic and chemical diversity in seeds of the cactus mandacaru, and the isotopic niche of exotic and native species in Neotropical floodplains.

Lastly, I would like to call your attention to the studies about the role of short-term diets with protein restriction on molecular and cellular level during pregnancy in rats, the study on how digoxin can affect public health, and the establishing of research-oriented hospitals in China.

Please keep in mind that since 2000 all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site (www.scielo.br/aabc).

Now I would like to invite you to scroll through the text, click on the title of the article that interests you, and enjoy!

Alexander W. A. Kellner


Parameter induction in continuous univariate distributions: Well-established G families

Authors: Muhammad H. Tahir and Saralees Nadarajah

The paper provides a review of methods to construct univariate parametric distributions. This review could help theoreticians to develop yet more new methods. The review could also help practitioners to find the best fitting distribution to a given data set.

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● Energy trends and the water-energy binomium for Brazil

Authors: Gisele O. da Rocha, Jeancarlo P. dos Anjos and Jailson B. de Andrade

The water vs. energy nexus has become a major concern worldwide, with Brazil occupying a singular position in the global energy system. A major portion of the Brazilian occupancies has electricity and the energy system expansion that, at first, possesses adequate means for supporting the economic growing may experience some turnovers. The present paper discusses the challenges Brazil has to face in order to to solve the increasing demand of energy and which should be the best energy matrix to be developed having in mind the necessity of growth but not keeping out of sight the worldwide necessity to reduce carbon emission.

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Recharge contribution to the Guarani Aquifer System estimated from the water balance method in a representative watershed

Authors: Edson Wendland, Luis H. Gomes and Uwe Troeger

The objective of this work was to evaluate the water balance in an experimental basin located in the outcrop region of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). The study involved the determination of direct recharge, groundwater storage variation and base flow. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at depths corresponding to the variation zone of the groundwater level to determine the specific yield of the soil (drainable porosity). The direct recharge ranged from 14.0% to 38.0%, and groundwater outflow from 0.4% to 2.4% of the rainfall during the study period.

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Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of an unusual palynological record from the Aquidauana Formation, Late Pennsylvanian of Paraná Basin

Authors: Paulo A. Souza, José A.J. Perinotto, Cristina M. Félix and Bruno C. Araújo

Fossil records are very scarce from the Aquidauana Formation. An unusual spores and pollen grain assemblage is here reported from this unit, retrieved in outcropping section in Aquidauana City, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, northeastern portion of the Paraná Basin. Fossil records are commonly scarce in this unit. Guide species enable to assign a Late Pennsylvanian age to the assemblage. Dominance of monosaccate pollen grains linked to Cordaitales plant community is not usual in Gondwana areas. The overrepresentation is related to an upland ecology, characterized by plants with a moisture-independent reproduction strategy under climate influence.

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Performance assessment of the database downscaled ocean waves (DOW) on Santa Catarina coast, South Brazil

Authors: Paula G. Silva, Antônio H.F. Klein, Mauricio González, Omar Gutierrez and Antonio Espejo

This work presents the validation of wave parameters from Downscaled Ocean Waves (DOW) reanalysis database. DOW series were generated by the Hydraulics Institute of Cantabria within the project SMC-Brasil, by executing a downscaling of Global Ocean Waves (GOW) data until coastal waters. Validation was conducted by Gumbel quantil-quantil assessment. Based on calculated statistical parameters, DOW data were considered adjusted to the values obtained by measurements. The database showed good representation of the mean conditions, especially when representing wave height which was very well reproduced by the wave model.

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Acritarchs of the Ediacaran Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group,
Northeastern Brazil

Authors: Leticia Chiglino, Claudio Gaucher, Alcides N. Sial and Valderez P. Ferreira

The occurrence of organic-walled microfossils (acritarchs) in Ediacaran limestones and marls of the Frecheirinha Formation (State of Ceará) is reported, which represent the first Precambrian microfossils found in northeastern Brazil. The marine microflora shows low diversity and is dominated by the genera Leiosphaeridia, of green algal affinity, and Bavlinella, related to modern cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis. The fossils are useful because: (1) they allow to constrain the age of the host rocks to the late Ediacaran (ca. 560-541 Ma); and (2) the advanced carbonization of the microfossils suggests metamorphic temperatures exceeding 200-250ºC, probably related to intruding granites.

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Mangroves Response to Climate Change: A Review of Recent Findings on Mangrove Extension and Distribution

Authors: Mario D.P. Godoy and Luiz D. de Lacerda

Mangroves provide important environmental services for coastal populations. Due to their geographical position at the continent-ocean interface, they suffer heavy impacts from global climate change. Worldwide, mangroves response to global climate change by pole ward migration, extending their latitudinal limits, due to warmer winters and decreasing the frequency of extreme low temperatures. In low-lying coastal plains, mangroves are migrating landward due to sea level rise. Taking into consideration climate change alone, mangroves in most areas display a positive response. In some areas however, such as low-lying oceanic islands and constrained coastlines, mangroves will most probably perish.

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Comments on Triassic pterosaurs with discussion about ontogeny and description of new taxa

Author: Alexander W.A. Kellner

Triassic pterosaurs are important for the study regarding the origin and early diversification of pterosaurs, the first vertebrates to develop active powered flight. A review of the genus Eudimorphodon ranzii shows some represent new species, demonstrating that Late Triassic pterosaurs were more diverse than previously supposed and further pushes the origins of this clade back to at least the Middle Triassic. This study also resulted in the recognition of six distinct ontogenetic stages that might be applicable to the whole group and closely related taxa.

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Extracting DNA of nematodes communities from Argentine Pampas agricultural soils

Authors: Eduardo A. Mondino, Fernanda Covacevich, Guillermo A. Studdert, João P. Pimentel and Ricardo L.L. Berbara

This work examined four strategies (Tris/EDTA, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Chelex 100 resin and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide -CTAB-) for extracting nucleic acid (DNA) from communities of nematodes. Nematodes were isolated from an agricultural area under different management of long-term crop rotation experiment from Argentina during three seasons. The CTAB combined with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol was the unique successful method because positive amplifications were obtained by using both eukaryotic and nematode specific primers. This work could contribute to biodiversity studies of nematodes in agroecosystems.

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Growth and reproduction of the mangrove crab Goniopsis cuentata (Latreille, 1803) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) in southeastern Brazil

Authors: Carla R.G. Reis, Fabiano G. Taddei and Valter J. Cobo

Goniopsis cruentata is a common semi-terrestrial crab in Brazilian mangroves and an important fishery resource for traditional communities in the northeastern Brazilian coast. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge about the species, this study evaluated the carapace width and weight growth curves, the relative growth of weight versus carapace width, and the temporal variation of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices for the species. The growth and reproductive patterns indicated that Goniopsis cruentata has a life-history that prioritizes reproduction instead of survival. The species exhibited some of the highest growth rates and lowest longevity estimates reported for brachyuran species in Brazil.

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Plasma nitric oxide, endothelin-1, arginase and superoxide dismutase in the plasma and placentae from preeclamptic patients

Authors: Fabiana C. Bernardi, Francieli Vuolo, Fabricia Petronilho, Monique Michels, Cristiane Ritter and Felipe Dal-Pizzol

The present work determine parameters of nitric oxide metabolism in plasma and placenta of preeclamptic (PE) patients. These parameters could be a crucial step in the pathophysiology of patients with preeclampsia. In addition, they may be differently modulated in the placenta as compared to others tissues. Thus, our study investigate the mechanisms involved in this process, and the understanding of its (im)balance could be pivotal in the developing of new therapeutic strategies for preeclampsia.

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Diet of the chola guitarfish, Rhinobatos percellens (Rhinobatidae), in the Paranaguá Estuarine complex

Authors: Wanessa P.D. do Carmo, Hugo Bornatowski, Elton C. Oliveira and Luís L. Fávaro

The results of this work showed that R. percellens is a specialist feeder in estuarine waters, consuming predominantly the shrimp Leptochela serratorbita. Probably this species feeds on the most abundant prey in environment, since this item, together with Caridea remains (that include L. serratorbita remains) was consumed by all classes and during all seasons. A hypothesis is the occupation of R. percellens between smaller (<70 cm TL) and large individuals (>70 cm) in different environments (estuarine and continental shelf waters), consequently feed on different prey.

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● Antileishmanial activity of some Brazilian plants, with particular reference to Casearia sylvestris

Authors: Luciana M.R. Antinarelli, Nícolas C. Pinto, Elita Scio and Elaine S. Coimbra

Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases caused by Leishmania protozoa which treatment is restricted to a limited number of drugs. In this work, the cytotoxic activity of 17 plant methanol extracts was evaluated on several Leishmania species. Among them, the extract of Casearia sylvestris, Piptocarpha macropoda, Trembleya parviflora, Samanea tubulosa and Plectranthus neochilus showed a promissing leishmanicidal activity (IC50 values below of 20 µg/mL at least one species of Leishmania). Casearia sylvestris showed the most expressive activity against all promastigotes of Leishmania species and against amastigotes of L. braziliensis. Further studies, including bio-guided fractionation will be conducted to identify the active compounds.

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● Chemical compositions and termiticidal activities of the heartwood from Calophyllum inophyllum L.

Authors: Roszaini Kadir, Khairul Awang, Zaitihaiza Khamaruddin and Zaini Soit

Wood extractives from heartwood of Callophylum inophyllum (bintangor) were obtained by shaker method and analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ten compounds were identified by ethanol (EtOH) solvents, fourteen by methanol (MeOH) and only nine by petroleum ether (PETETHR). Major compounds were contributed by monoterpenes (75.11%, 53.75%) when extracted with EtOH and PETETHR solvents. The anti-termitic assay of the wood extracts was also investigated against Coptotermes curvignathus. The level of concentration for anti-termite activity may be an indication of the dose application of the wood extracts for new development of termiticide.

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Croton argenteus preparation inhibits initial growth, mitochondrial respiration and increase the oxidative stress from Senna occidentalis seedlings

Authors: Katlin S. Rech, Cristiane B. Silva, Juliana D. Kulik, Josiane F.G. Dias, Sandra M.W. Zanin, Vitor A. Kerber, Fernanda M.M. Ocampos, Luciane Dalarmi, Gedir O. Santos, Euclésio Simionatto, Cristina P. Lima, Obdúlio G. Miguel and Marilis D. Miguel

Senna occidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations. In this aspect, Croton argenteus becomes an object of studies for the control of S. occidentalis, as it presents dominance in the areas where it develops. The studies demonstrate that allelochemicals present in crude ethanolic extract and fractions obtained from C. argenteus demonstrated allelopathic activity in S. occidentalis, interfering in germination, radicle and hypocotyl growth, and compromise the mitochondrial ATP production, with a decrease in the production of L-malate and succinate and that these changes can occur for changes in oxidative stress in laboratory.  

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● Genetic and chemical diversity in seeds of cactus mandacaru (Cereus sp.) from two edaphoclimatic regions contrasting

Authors: Maycon R.R. Bevilaqua, Arquimedes P. Santana Filho, Claudete A. Mangolin, Arildo J.B. Oliveira and Maria de Fátima P.S. Machado

We have evaluated the chemical, physiological and genetic differences in seeds of mandacaru (Cereus genus) cultivated in the Northwest (Picos, PI) and Southern (Maringá, PR) regions of Brazil. Temperatures of 25ºC and 30ºC were equally efficient for the germination of all the seeds. Oleic acid was the most common fatty acid detected. The analysis of lipases indicated high genetic diversity in the seeds from the two localities and low genetic identity between them. The seeds from the two contrasting regions of Brazil are promising with regards to the preservation of the biodiversity in the genome of mandacaru.

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Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the aerial parts of Inula aucheriana

Authors: Ahmad Reza Gohari, Mahmoud Mosaddegh, Farzaneh Naghibi, Bahara Eslami-Tehrani, Atefeh Pirani, Maryam Hamzeloo-Moghadam and Roger W. Read

Sesquiterpene lactones inuchinenolide B, 6-deoxychamissonolide (stevin) and 14-acetoxy-1β,5α,7αH-4β-hydroxy-guai-9(10),11(13)-dien-12,8α-olide have been isolated from Inula aucheriana DC (Asteraceae) and theirdetailed 1 and 2D NMR data have been presented. Inuchinenolide B and 14-acetoxy-1β,5α,7αH-4β-hydroxy-guai-9(10),11(13)-dien-12,8α-olide have been further evaluated in Methyl Thiazol Tetrazolium (MTT) assay to demonstrate cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of (56.6, 19.0), (39.0, 11.8), and (55.7, 15.3) μg/mL against HepG-2, MCF-7 and A-549 cells, respectively. The cytotoxic activity of the two evaluated sesquiterpene lactones partly explains the cytotoxic activity that was previously observed for the extracts of Inula aucheriana.

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Glands on the foliar surfaces of tribe Cercideae (Caesapiniodeae, Leguminosae): distribution and taxonomic significance

Authors: Joaquim M. Duarte-Almeida, Milene S. Clemente, Rosani C.O. Arruda, Angela M.S.F. Vaz and Antonio Salatino

Bauhinia is a large pantropical genus of shrubs and trees, several of its species being cultivated in many countries. The flowers of some species are showy; hence, some of these species are popularly called ‘orchid trees’. The paper discusses relationships between presence and frequency of glands with Brazilian ecosystems and the possible contribution of the glands to prevent attack by herbivores. We believe that the results of the paper are relevant, because they reveal that the glands are a distinctive feature of one of the two largest subgenera of Bauhinia.

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Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae) from the campos rupestres

Authors: Taiza M. Silva, Divina A.A. Vilhalva, Moemy G. de Moraes and Rita de Cássia L. Figueiredo-Ribeiro

Fructans are carbohydrates found in some plant groups, whose main functions are source of energy and protection against abiotic stresses. We analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae), an endemic species from campos rupestres. Inulin-type fructans were found in all analyzed organs except leaves, and were abundant in xylopodium tissues, mainly in the central region. Secretory structures accumulating several secondary compounds were present in the vegetative organs and, in addition to inulin, might be related to strategies of this species to survive drought and fire frequently occurring in campos rupestres.

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Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto 

Authors: Marcelo C. de Souza, Paula C.P. Bueno, Leonor P.C. Morellato and Gustavo Habermann

The woody plant community from the cerrado is comprised of 30% aluminum-(Al) accumulating and 70% non-accumulating species. Despite the large number of Al-accumulating species, there are no congeneric species between these groups. Al-accumulating plants flush throughout the year while non-accumulating plants present a peak of leaf flushing at the dry-wet seasons transition (September). Al-accumulating plants show lower leaf nutrient concentration in relation to non-accumulating species. In addition, the increase of specific leaf area (SLA) is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season (January).

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Isotopic niches of sympatric native and exotic fish species in a Neotropical floodplain

Authors: Juliana S. Philippsen, Marília Hauser and Evanilde Benedito

This paper investigated the isotopic niche of an exotic and a native species, adopting Layman’s metrics to test the hypothesis that there was no or little isotopic niche overlap between them. The results showed substantial isotopic niche overlap. The native species presented higher dietary diversity, exploring a broader variety of basal resources with higher individual dispersion in isotopic space within its population, compared to the exotic species. Thus, preventing or minimizing the possible interspecific competition with the exotic species.

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Diurnal versus nocturnal pollination success in Billbergia horrida Regel (Bromeliaceae) and the first record of chiropterophily for the genus

Authors: Juçara S. Marques, Marcela C. Tagliati and Ana Paula G. Faria

The manuscript discusses aspects related to the morphology, floral biology, reproductive success and pollination of Billbergia horrida Regel (Bromeliaceae) in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in the southeastern Brazil. Although the majority of Billbergia species rely on diurnal pollination by hummingbirds, B. horrida is also visited by bats and this manuscript evidences for the first time the occurrence of chiropterophily within the genus. The role of this pollinator on the reproductive success of B. horrida is also discussed, as well as the correlation of nectar features in sustaining bats and hummingbirds during different periods of the day.

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Saturniidae and Sphingidae (Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea) assemblage in Vossoroca, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

Authors: Fábio L. Santos, Mirna M. Casagande and Olaf H.H. Mielke

This study provides information on the biodiversity of moths (Saturniidae and Sphingidae) in an area of Montana Mixed Ombrophilous Forest, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brazil, 880m. The sampling effort totaled 288 hours being responsible for the capture of 858 specimens and 86 species of Saturniidae, and 377 specimens and 38 species of Sphingidae. This was one of the greatest lists for Saturniidae in Paraná. It is noteworthy the sampling of 10 new species: one of Automerella Michener, 1949, two of Hylesia Hübner, [1820], one of Lonomia Walker, 1855 and six of Periga Walker, 1855, that will be described.

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Halophila baillonis  Ascherson: first population dynamics data for the Southern Hemisphere

Authors: Karine M. Magalhães, João C.G. Borges and Maria E. Pitanga

Seagrasses are an ecological group consisting of angiosperm flora that successfully adapted to submerged marinelife. The global species diversity of seagrasses is low (<60 species). Only 5 recognized species of seagrass are known to occur on the Brazilian coast. This includes Halophila baillonis, which had previously been considered extinct. Here we present population data for H. baillonis in the Southern Hemisphere, including a description of the plant and its cover area, biomass and density values.

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● Morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of Schizodon knerii (Steindachner, 1875), (Characiformes: Anostomidae): An anatomical, histological and histochemical study

Authors: Marcella L. dos Santos, Fábio P. Arantes, Kleber B. Santiago and José E. dos Santos

This study contributes to the understanding of the anatomy and digestive physiology of the investigated species, providing histological data, relating to the morphology of the digestive tract with the feeding habits. It was possible to analyze fragments of the lips, tongue, oesophagus, stomach (cardiac, fundic and pyloric), intestine (cranial, middle and caudal) and pyloric caeca, in order to increase knowledge about its biology, since the species is important for commercial fishing in the Três Marias region.

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Competition between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and (barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.) as affected by methanol foliar application

Authors: Alireza D. Rezaeieh, Hashem Aminpanah and Seyed M. Sadeghi

Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important staple food for more than half of the world's population. Weeds reduce rice yield by competing with the crops for light, nutrients, and moisture. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is the most aggressive weed and may reduce rice yields from 38% up to 64% depending on the rice cultivar. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of methanol foliar application on competition between rice and barnyardgrass. Results indicated that methanol foliar application reduced the competitive ability of rice cultivar against barnyardgrass. Thus, foliar spray of aqueous methanol cannot be recommended for rice under weedy conditions.

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A New Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil

Authors: Henrique C. Costa, Flávia C. Resende, Mauro Teixeira Jr., Francisco Dal Vechio and Cinara A. Clemente

During deforestation activities for installation of a slurry pipeline in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, biologists found specimens of a small kind of worm-lizard (Amphisbaena), about 200 mm length. Animals were donated to the scientific collection of Fundação Ezequiel Dias and Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte, capital of Minas Gerais, and studied by a team of researchers from three different institutions. Then, came the surprise: those worm-lizards belong to a species new to science, which was named Amphisbaena metallurga (“miner” in greek).

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Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L.) infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of  Latuca sativa

Authors: Jaqueline Luber, Marcel J. Palmieri, Carolina M. Botelho, Daniel Rinaldo and Larissa F. Andrade-Vieira

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is one of the medicinal plants of interest by the Brazilian Unified Health System. Biological assays are needed to scientifically validate the use of plants in popular medicine. Cytogenetic bioassays using plant are efficient for studies to assess the toxicity and mutagenicity of plant extracts. Lactuca sativa (lettuce) used in this study proved to be an adequate model for evaluation of toxic effects of guava extracts. The evaluated varieties of guava presented a phytotoxic effect, as well as cyto- and genotoxic effects in lettuce. Thus, we recommend caution when using guava as a medicinal and phytotherapic plant.

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Association of IL-6 and CRP  gene polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents

Authors: Pâmela F. Todendi, Elisa I. Klinger, Michele B. Ferreira, Cézane P. Reuter, Miria S. Burgos, Lia G. Possuelo and Andréia R.M. Valim

Obesity is related to inflammatory process resulting from stimuli triggered by adipocytes with accumulation of lipids. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6), are involved in the chronic inflammation triggered by adipocytes. Genetic alterations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), seem to be related with the development of metabolic changes in the population with overweight and obesity. In our study we found that one SNP in the CRP gene was related to high cholesterol levels in children and adolescents and a SNP in the IL-6 gene was associated with the development of obesity in Brazilian schoolchildren.

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● Synopsis of Dorstenia (Moraceae) in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

Authors: Bruna de Oliveira Boeni and Rodrigo Bustos Singer

The present contribution is thus aimed to present a synopsis of the Dorstenia (Moraceae) species occurring in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, within the austral distributional limits of the genus in the Americas. Three species were recorded: D. brasiliensis, D. carautae, a new record for the state of RS, and D. tenuis. All species are described and illustrated through detailed photos of living specimens. Additionally, morphological diagnostic (either vegetative or floral) features are highlighted. A taxonomic key to separate the species, as well as details on distribution, overall phenology, habitat, conservation status and ecology are presented.

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Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado

Authors: Luiz R.S. Tozin, Marcia O.M. Marques and Tatiane M. Rodrigues

Lippia origanoides essential oils present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases. We investigated the glandular trichome density and the essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences. The essential oil chemical composition varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population evidencing the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides.

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● Culicoides castelloni sp. nov. from the Brazilian Amazon Region with a revision of the reticulatus species group (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

Authors: Maria Clara Santarém, Emanuelle S. Farias and Maria Luiza Felippe-Bauer

A new species of the reticulatus species group, C. castelloni Santarém and Felippe-Bauer, is described and illustrated based on female specimens from the state of Amazonas, Brazil. This species is distinguished by sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1, 9-13, hind tibial comb with six spines and a long third palpal segment with a small sensory pit. A systematic key, wing photographs and table with numerical characters of females and a synopsis of 24 species of the Culicoides reticulatus group are presented. This paper presents further new Neotropical records to C. aureus, C. forattinii, C. guyanensis, C. lanei, C. paucienfuscatus, C. pifanoi and C. tavaresi.

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Hemagglutinating/Hemolytic activities in extracts of marine invertebrates from the Brazilian coast and isolation of two lectins from the marine sponge Cliona varians and the sea cucumber Holothuria grisea

Authors: Raniere M. Moura, Arthur A. Melo, Rômulo F. Carneiro, Cícera R.F. Rodrigues, Plínio Delatorre, Kyria S. Nascimento, Silvana Saker-Sampaio, Celso S. Nagano, Benildo S. Cavada and Alexandre H. Sampaio

Twenty species of marine invertebrate were screened for hemagglutinating activity and two species were selected for lectin purification. CvL-2, a galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-binding lectin, was purified from marine sponge Cliona varians and HGL, a Mucin-binding lectin, was purified from sea cucumber Holothuria grisea. CvL-2 binding to carbohydrate of manner Ca2+ dependent and showed no toxic effect on Artemia nauplii, whereas HGL is a rare lectin with hemolytic activity and showed high toxicity against nauplii.

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Growth of the tropical zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) on reefs in northeastern Brazil

Authors: Janine F. Silva, Paula B. Gomes, Erika C. Santana, João M. Silva, Érica P. Lima, Andre M.M. Santos and Carlos D. Pérez

The study investigates the growth rate of Palythoa caribaeorum, an abundant zoanthid in Brazilian reefs, essential for structuring the local benthic community. We also assessed the influence of the site (different beaches), season (dry and wet), location (intertidal and infralittoral zones), and human pressure associated with tourism. The growth rate was homogeneous without influence from colony site, location or touristic visitation. It was higher in the first month after injury. We discuss how this fast and continuous growth should assist in the dominance of the species in the Brazilian reefs and its importance in the reef dynamics.

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Effects of cigarette smoke condensate on the production and characterization of exopolysaccharides by Bifidobacterium

Authors: Jinqiang Hu, Tao Wei, Siwen Sun, Aijing Zhao and Chunping Xu

The influence of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on the production and molecular characterization of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced form Bifidobacterium animalis was studied aiming towards achieving a better simulation and understanding of the mechanisms of how swallowed smoke may influence the growth of bacteria in intestinal bacterial flora. The results found B. animalis growth and production of EPSs were influenced by the presence of CSC, essentially leading to growth inhibition and decrease in metabolites content. These findings will pave the way for future investigations along the negative influence of tobacco and smoke-related condensates in microorganisms.

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Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

Authors: Cristiana S.B. Salvatierra, Sílvia R.L. Reis, Ana F.M. Pessoa, Letícia M.I. de Souza, Luiz F. Stoppiglia, Roberto V. Veloso, Marise A.B. Reis, Everardo M. Carneiro, Antonio C. Boschero, Edson M. Colodel, Vanessa C. Arantes and Márcia Q. Latorraca

Studies that evaluate the role of protein restriction on molecular and cellular determinants involved in β-cell adaptation during pregnancy are important to identify possible causal factors of gestational diabetes. It was investigated the effects of protein restriction during pregnancy on the morphometry and the expression and phosphorylation of proteins involved in the PI3K and MAPK pathways. Short-term exposure to a low-protein diet during pregnancy reduced pancreatic islet area, as well as the content of AKT1 and level of p70S6K. Low serum corticosterone level could contribute to alteration of the PI3K pathway and, consequently, in the proliferation and apoptosis.

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Lymphocyte subset reference intervals in blood donors from northeastern Brazil

Authors: Alex J.L. Torres, Patrícia Cisneiros, Rosa Guedes, Maria Fernanda R. Grassi, Roberto Meyer, Maria T. Bendicho, Tais G.S.L. Lopes, Gabriela Félix, Eduardo M. Netto, Carlos Brites, Kiyoko Abe-Sandes, Claudio Brandão, Neuza Alcantara-Neves and Songeli M. Freire

The reference intervals for leukocytes and lymphocytes currently used by most clinical laboratories present limitations as they are primarily derived from individuals of North American and European origin. The objective this study was to determine reference values for peripheral blood B lymphocytes, T lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD8+, naïve, memory, regulatory, TCRαβ and TCRγδ+) and NK cells from blood donors
in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil.

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Establishment of research-oriented hospital: an important way for translational medicine development in China

Authors: Meina Li and Lulu Zhang

The past decade has seen the rapid progress of translational medicine. While the traditional hospital structure could not meet the demands of translational medicine development any longer to explore a novel hospital structure is imperative. In order to promote translational medicine, China proposed and implemented a development strategy for a first-class modern research-oriented hospital. The article introduced how research-oriented hospitals facilitate translational research by integrating medical service and medical research, providing training and education, and developing interdisciplinary research platform.

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Study of digoxin use in a public health unit

Authors: Felipe C. Souza, Emiliana B. Marques, Rogério B.M. Barros and Christianne B.V. Scaramello

Digoxin intoxication may occur due to drug interactions or comorbidities, so the aim of this work was to study its use in a public health unit. In 2 years, among 647 patients, 185 individuals made use of digoxin and had their records available. Plasma digoxin levels were found in 80 records being out of the therapeutic range in 42 patients. This group was constituted mainly by males, functional class III of heart failure, exhibiting renal failure. This work highlights the necessity of plasma digoxin close monitoring during pharmacotherapy and the development of protocols that allow a safer use.

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In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of Brazilian plants extracts against Paenibacillus larvae and toxicity in bees

Authors: Mariana Piana, Thiele F. de Brum, Aline A. Boligon,Camilla F.S. Alves, Robson B. de Freitas, Letícia T. Nunes, Natalia J. Mossmann, Vanessa Janovik, Roberta S. Jesus, Rodrigo A. Vaucher, Roberto C.V. Santos and Margareth L. Athayde

In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of Brazilian plants extracts against Paenibacillus larvae and toxicity in bees talks about a useful alternative for treatment or prevention of American foulbrood which is a serious worldwide spreading disease in bees caused by Paenibacillus larvae. In some countries antibiotics are used, however, this practice has shown to lead to bacterial resistance and this situation calls for an alternative and effective control of the disease that does not contribute to this phenomenon. In this search three Brazilian plants were evaluated, Nasturtium officinale crude extract and Cariniana domestica butanolic fraction both showed activity against P. larvae and not toxic effects in the concentration tested by the spraying application method.

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Bone turnover markers for early detection of fracture healing disturbances: A review of the scientific literature

Cristina P. Sousa, Isabel R. Dias, Mónica Lopez-Peña, José A. Camassa, Paulo J. Lourenço, Fernando M. Judas, Manuela E. Gomes and Rui L. Reis

Bone turnover markers (BTM) are products of bone cells activity and are generally subdivided into three categories: bone resorption markers, bone formation markers and osteoclasts regulatory proteins. The purpose of this review was to systematize the available information about the clinical effectiveness of serum BTM to monitor the progression of the fracture healing process, identifying patients at risk of developing impaired fracture healing processes. Nevertheless, the available evidence in this issue was heterogeneous and, consequently, it is difficult to draw conclusions. One of the most important constraints, referred in the scientific literature, for the clinical and research application of BTM is related to a remarkable inter-individual variability, making it difficult to establish reference limits.

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Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Authors: Berenice K. de Alcântara, Daniel Pizzaia, Fernando A. Piotto, Lucélia Borgo, Gilvano E. Brondani and Ricardo A. Azevedo

The Eucalyptus genus is the most commonly planted, fast-growing hardwood in the world. Eucalyptus has expanded in Brazil, particularly in the Brazilian “Cerrado” region, an area known to have acidic soils and a high occurrence of exchangeable aluminum that leads to low fertility and may compromise symbiotic efficiency and plant growth, and consequently productivity. We analyzed the effects of Al on root elongation of a Eucalyptus hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis) and examined the plant stress responses. A fast increase in the rate of lipid peroxidation led to a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al.

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Inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in weanling pig diets

Authors: Maria C. Thomaz, Pedro H. Watanabe, Leonardo A.F. Pascoal, Murilo M. Assis, Urbano S. Ruiz, Alessandro B. Amorim, Susana Z. Silva, Vivian V. Almeida, Gabriel M.P. Melo and Rizal A. Robles-Huaynate

Organic minerals are those, which have complexed to organic molecules comprising amino acids, carbohydrates, and proteins, as well as other possible linkable components. The increased bioavailability of organic minerals might be due to their greater solubility and higher absorption by the organic binder components. Consequently, trace minerals in organic form can reduce the environmental impact of pig manure and also present nutritional and immune effect due to their higher availability.

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Qualitative characteristics of meat from cull cows of different genotypes and age class slaughter under different finishing systems: a meta-analytic approach.

Authors: Rangel F. Pacheco, Andrei R. Mayer, Marcos A.B. Vaz, Luciana Pötter, Jonatas Cattelam, Álisson M. Callegaro, Luiz Angelo D. Pizzuti, Ivan L. Brondani, Dari C. Alves Filho and Paulo S. Pacheco

Although a lot of information can be beneficial to the evolution of the scientific knowledge, the contextualization and systematization of information can represent a problem, with errors of interpretation and analysis, especially when it comes to brazilian conditions for the cattle production. Thus, the meta-analysis process can be employed to provide the means to make the synthesis of the knowledge obtainded about the subject. In this study, was possible to observe that the genotype effects, finishing system and age slaughter of beef cows were determinants to the meat quality of the animals.

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Conservation of forest Biodiversity: how sample size affects the estimation of genetic parameters

Authors: Leonardo S. da Costa, Nathana S. Corneleo and Valdir M. Stefenon

This study employed exhaustive computer simulations in order to determine what fraction of a population should be sampled to obtain confident estimations of allelic richness and of inbreeding coefficient in population genetic surveys. The results suggest that at least 10% of the total population has to be sampled to ensure reliable estimations, allowing the confidence of the genetic parameters estimations of a larger number of populations, based on a minimal sample within each one.

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Use of dried waste of cassava starch extraction to feeding lactating cows

Authors: Tatiane Fernandes, Maximiliane A. Zambom, Deise D. Castagnara, Leiliane C. Souza, Daiane O. Damasceno and Emerson L. Schmidt

The use of dried waste of cassava starch extraction (WCSEd) as a substitute for corn for lactating cows. Resulting on reduction in dry matter intake, organic matter, ether extract and total carbohydrate. Nutrient digestibility was not affected while the synthesis of microbial protein increased. These changes resulted in reduced milk production, without altering the efficiency of production or the constituents of milk. The residue from the extraction of cassava starch can be used as feed for dairy cows to replace up to 100% of the corn ration. However, its use promotes impacts on the profitability of the product.

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Antioxidant, hemolytic, antimicrobial, and citotoxic activities of the tropical Atlantic marine zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum

Authors: Daniel B. Alencar, Arthur A. Melo, Giselle C. Silva, Rebeca L. Lima, Kelma M.S. Pires-Cavalcante, Rômulo F. Carneiro, Adriana S. Rabelo, Oscarina V. Sousa, Regine H.S.F. Vieira, Francisco A. Viana, Alexandre H. Sampaio and Silvana Saker-Sampaio

Marine invertebrates are capable of synthesizing bioactive compounds, which may be beneficial to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, hemolytic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities of the crude extract, and of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the marine zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum. The results presented antioxidant potential and cytotoxic activity against Artemia nauplii. They also showed low hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes at 50 μg mL-1. Thus, the crude extract and fractions possess biocompounds that can potentially be used as therapeutic agents.

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Effect of prey concentrations and feed training on production of Hoplias lacerdae juveline

Authors: Ronald K. Luz and Maria Célia Portella

The trairão Hopliaslacerdae is a carnivorous freshwater fish. Its larviculture has been realized, and high survival rates were registered when Artemia nauplii were used as live food. The prey concentration (Artemia nauplii larvae-1) affects growth of H. lacerdae during the first 15 days of active feeding. This species is able to accept formulated diet and feed training can be initialized with juveniles of about 16 mm of total length, indicating its potential for commercial production.

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An Investigation of a Mathematical Model for the Internal Velocity Profile of Conical Diffusers Applied to DAWTs

Authors: Disterfano L.M. Barbosa, Jerson R.P. Vaz, Sávio W.O. Figueiredo, Marcelo de Oliveira e Silva, Erb F. Lins and André L.A. Mesquita

The present work shows a mathematical model, which describes the behavior of the internal velocity for three conical diffusers, taking into account the characteristics of flow around them. That model is based on the Biot-Savart's Law, in which the vortex filament induces a velocity field at an arbitrary point on the axis of symmetry of the diffusers. This kind of modeling is important on wind turbine design with diffuser. The diffuser is a device which has the function of causing an increase on the flow velocity through the wind rotor plane due to pressure drop downstream, therefore resulting in an increase of the rotor power coefficient.

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Adsorption of SOX and NOX in activated viscose fibers

Authors: Ana Carolina O. Plens, Daniel L.G. Monaro and Aparecido R. Coutinho

This manuscript entitled Adsorption of SOX and NOX in activated viscose fibers presents a study about production and characterization of viscose rayon fibers for adsorption SO2 and NO compounds. Viscose rayon is a precursor for production of activated carbon felts has a low cost and it is easily handling. The results indicated that it is possible to produce activated fiber with an essentially microporous structure and similar to others commercial activated carbons, allowing its application to removal these contaminants.

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Coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence

Author: David J.C. Dennis

Turbulence is one of the long-standing unsolved problems in classical physics. It has fascinated physicists, mathematicians and engineers for many years, not least because of its ubiquitous, yet troublesome nature. This review paper discusses the advances that have been made in the understanding of wall-bounded turbulence through the paradigm of “coherent structures” during the last fifty years, particularly focussing on recent advances enabled by significant improvements in experimental techniques and computational resources. The approach is to de-construct the chaotic and disorganized turbulent flow into fundamental organized motions in order to enhance our scientific understanding and inform engineering solutions.

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Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of turbulent Flows

Authors: João M. Vedovoto, Ricardo Serfaty and Aristeu da Silveira Neto

This work is devoted to the development of a computational framework to perform numerical simulations of low Mach turbulent flows over complex geometries. The algorithms retained are based on a predictor-corrector time integration scheme that employs a projection method for the momentum equations. The Immersed Boundary Methodology is used to characterize the presence of complex geometries. The capabilities of the computational framework are illustrated on four distinct cases: a turbulent jet, the Poiseuille flow, the flow over a sphere, and finally, aiming demonstrating the applicability of Large Edd Simulations - LES in an industrial problem, the turbulent flow inside an industrial fan.

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Brazilian impact factor of physics journals – the third side of the coin

Authors: José R. Mohallem and Norma E. da Fonseca

We first observed that for the same number of citations, Brazilian researchers publish, in average, in journals of lower impact factor (IF) than researchers from the scientific hard core. Then we show statistically the lack of correlation between the IF and the most cited Brazilian papers in physics. In consequence, we propose an effective Brazilian IF, being its values, in general, lower than the international IF. In some cases, discrepancies from the international values are huge, leading to doubts on whether it is appropriate to use this indicator to judge Brazilian scientists.

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On Vastness and Variability: Cultural Transmission, Historicity, and the Paleoindian Record in Eastern South America

Author: Astolfo G.M. Araujo

Since the beginning of the Holocene, three totally distinct and contemporaneous lithic technologies are present in different portions of eastern South America. Our data suggests that these differences are related to different cultural norms and transmission of strongly divergent chaînes opératoires. Historicity, understood in evolutionary terms as a string of events that lead to a given state whose occurrence is dependent upon previous states, is a concept that could be of use in explaining the South American empirical record. The observed material culture diversity cannot be explained by the Clovis-first model. The most plausible scenario for the peopling of the Americas is related to one or more events of human arrival well before 14,000 years BP.

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Brazilian Science and Research Integrity: Where are We? What Next?

Authors: Sonia M.R. Vasconcelos, Martha M. Sorenson, Edson H. Watanabe, Debora Foguel and Marisa Palácios

As an emerging scientific power, Brazil has faced several challenges, which include fostering a culture of research integrity at its institutions. In Brazilian Science and Research Integrity: Where are We? What Next?, we show that the country has embraced this challenge in its efforts to build a world-class scientific community. We offer an overview of research integrity conversations and actions that have been taken and suggest that research governance and integrity are increasingly associated in the country’s science policy agenda. However, we indicate that a long road lies ahead for Brazilian institutions to design effective educational approaches in this area.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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