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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 87 (1) - March 2015


The first issue of the year of the Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências - AABC) presents a total of 45 articles. As usual, it is a difficult task to point out those, which might be of more interest to our wide audience.

Among the studies that surely will call the attention of the reader is the one about seabather´s eruption. This disease is epidemic in a few places like in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida. In Brazil, although not common, there are already 14 reported cases, as shown in a paper published in this issue.

The habit of smoking is sometimes attributed to ethnic differences. One interesting study has tackled this question and found out that socioeconomic disparities might play an even larger role in several regions. Still regarding smoking, a second paper reveals that nicotine, a major toxic component of tobacco, can play a major role in the enhancement of the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein.


As of general knowledge, essential oils obtained from plants are increasingly tested as viable substitutes for conventional drugs. One study published in this issue of the AABC has analyzed the bioactive principles of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) on silver catfishes. Other studies concerning plants, particularly their anatomy, were also published in this issue, such as the variation in leaves of Butia (Arecaceae) species and leaflets of Rhynchosia (Fabaceae), and how this implicates in taxonomomic studies.

Another important contribution published in the present issue is the application, for the first time, of the phylogenetic diversity index on Neotropical caves. Among the conclusions is the presence of a high phylogenetic diverse subterranean fauna in the caves from Chapada Diamantina that need to be better protected.

Lastly, I would like to call your attention to the discovery of proteases from two psychrophilitic bacterial samples from the King George Island, Antarctica. Such studies are important due to their potential biotechnological applications.

Please note that the AABC is an open access journal and since 2000, all papers can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site (www.scielo.br/aabc). Now I invite you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the articles that interest you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner


● Use of Doehlert and constrained mixture designs in the development of a photo-oxidation procedure using UV radiation/H2O2 for decomposition of landfill leachate samples and determination of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

Authors: Marcos A. Bezerra, Antônio D.S. Souza, Rafael V. Oliveira, Djalma M. Oliveira, Luiz A.M. Cardoso and Hélio R. Sousa Filho

In this work it was proposed the use of photo-oxidation degradation with ultraviolet radiation and H2O2 as sample treatment for the determination of Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni and Co in municipal solid waste landfill leachate by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Variables involved in the method performance were optimized using Doehlert and constrained mixture designs. Using the experimental conditions established, this procedure has presented limits of detection between 0.010 to 0.075 μg mL-1.
This procedure has been applied for the analysis of the landfill leachate collected in Jequié, a city of the southwestern region of the State of Bahia, Brazil.

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On the fossil Remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil

Authors: José D. Ferreira, Martín Zamorano and Ana Maria Ribeiro

In previous studies, we described new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material. The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P. tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini.

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Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira river basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil), as revealed by paleomorphological analysis

Authors: Ericson H. Hayakawa and Dilce F. Rossetti

Fluvial paleomorphologies are well preserved along the Madeira River, and they are revealed by Digital Elevation Model even if covered by dense rainforest. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion is related to tectonics due to features as: (i) straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii) northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii) several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections.

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Testing the influence of a sand mica mixture on basin fill in extension and inversion experiments

Authors: Caroline J.S. Gomes, Taynara D´Angelo and Gisela M.S. Almeida

We compare the deformation patterns produced by sand and a sand mica mixture while simulating basin fill in extension and inversion models. In extension, the sand mica mixture basin fill experiments show fewer normal faults. During inversion, the most striking difference between the sand and the sand mica mixture basin fill experiments is related to the internal deformation in fault-propagation folds, which increases with an increase in the basal friction. We conclude that our strongly elasto-frictional plastic sand mica mixture may be used to simulate folds in experiments that focus on mild inversion in the brittle crust.

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Simplified three-dimensional model provides anatomical insights in lizards` caudal autotomy as printed illustration

Authors: Joana D.C.G. de Amorim, Isadora Travnik and Bernadete M. de Sousa

Lizards’ caudal autotomy is a complex mechanism involving diminished and intricate structures that can be hard to assimilate. We intended to create a rendered model that would facilitate comprehension of autotomy by presenting the involved structures with accuracy, but in a didactic and uniform design. We here present a simplified 3D model depicting the caudal osteology of Tropidurus itambere and its autotomy related features that was successfully used within the classroom context. The creation of such model requires no advanced laboratory equipment and all biological materials were preserved for future research.

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Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb.Rodr.) Noblick comb. Nov (Arecaceae)

Authors: Bruno F. Sant`Anna-Santos, Wellington G.O. Carvalho Júnior and Vanessa B. Amaral

This comparative leaf anatomy study supported two species separation in the genus Butia (Becc.) Becc. (Arecaceae). The anatomical characteristics identified can be useful as information sources to clarify other taxonomic problems in this group.

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Novelties in secretory structures and anatomy of Rhynchosia (Fabaceae)

Authors: Wanderleia de Vargas, Ângela L.B. Sartori and Edna S. Dias

We investigated anatomical characters of leaflet from Rhynchosia taxa in order to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of these anatomical traits for taxonomic assignment. The set of anatomical data addressed in the present study effectively separates the Rhynchosia taxa investigated. Our results provide the information that served to effectively distinguish the taxa investigated and contribute for future studies in other groups of Papilonoideae.

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Lippia alba essential oil promotes survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas sp.

Authors: Fernando J. Sutili, Mauro A. Cunha, Rosangela E. Ziech, Carina C. Krewer, Carla C. Zeppenfeld, Clarissa G. Heldwein, Leticia T. Gressler, Berta M. Heinzmann, Agueda C. Vargas and Bernardo Baldisserotto.

Essential oils obtained from plants have been widely tested as an alternative to conventional drugs due to the potential of their bioactive principles. These products can be used in aquaculture as therapeutic and prophylactic agents against fish pathogens, with antimicrobial and/or immunostimulant properties. In this study we demonstrate that Lippia alba essential oil added to water at lower concentrations than the anesthetic concentration, promotes survival in fish infected with Aeromonas sp.

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Three new species of Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota) from Southern Brazil

Authors: Ana M. Charnei, Sionara Eliasaro and Emerson L. Gumboski

In a study about Cladoniaceae conducted in the Serra do Mar Mountain in Southern Brazil, three new species are described as new to science: Cladonia maculata, C. paranaensis and C. quiririensis. During this study, 858 specimens were analyzed using standard stereoscopic and light microscopic techniques; chemical constituents were identified by spot tests, under UV light and thin layer chromatography. For all the new species are provided detailed descriptions, chemical composition, ecological data and comments about related species.

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Detection of proteases from Sporosarcina aquimarina and Algoriphagus antarcticus isolated from Antarctic soil

Authors: Anderson F. Santos, Fabiano Pires, Hugo E. Jesus, André L.S. Santos, Raquel Peixoto, Alexandre S. Rosado, Claudia M. D`Avila-Levy and Marta H. Branquinha

Two psychrophilic bacterial samples were isolated from King George Island soil, in Antarctica, and identified as Sporosarcina aquimarina and Algoriphagus antarcticus based on the 16S rRNA gene analysis. The spent culture media from both isolates displayed proteolytic activities detected by gelatin-SDS-PAGE. S. aquimarina showed a 55 kDa protease with the best activity at pH 7.0 and at 27°C, and A. antarcticus a 90 kDa protease better detected at pH 9.0 and at 37°C. Both proteases were inhibited by metalloprotease inhibitors. This is the first record of protease detection in both species and may help prospecting future biotechnological applications.

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Wide-range genetic connectivity of Coney Cephalopholis fulva (Epinephelidae), through oceanic islands and continental Brazilian coast

Authors: Allyson S. de Souza, Eurico A. Dias Júnior, Pedro M. Galetti Jr, Erick G. Machado, Mauro Pichorim and Wagner F. Molina

Epinephelidae forms an important group of fishes. Cephalopholis fulva, Coney, is a small grouper which presents a wide geographical distribution, polychromia, hermaphroditism and is quickly becoming a large target for the exploration of commercial fishing. Its phylogeographic patterns are not well known. Population data were obtained through the analysis of Control Region from six locations on the coastline of Brazil and two islands (Rocas Atoll and Fernando de Noronha). The analyzed samples revealed a high genetic variability and a strong gene flow among the sampled locations. The large population connectivity found in Coney constitutes relevant conditions for their biological conservation.

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Plant-pollinator interactions in Crambe abyssinica Hochst. (Brassicaceae) associated with environmental variables

Authors: Lívia C. Simioni, Rosilda M. Mussury, Munir Mauad, Daiane M. Dresh, Fabricio F. Pereira and Silvana P.Q. Scalon

Investigation of insect pollinators associated with an important crop, Crambe abyssinica, and how environmental conditions affect fluctuation of these insects was discussed in this study. This is the first report on bees that occur with this species, representing a contribution to science because it allows adequate alternative methods for control of other pests with less impact to pollinators. The participation of bees with C. abyssinica ensures the genetic diversity of seeds formed and therefore the success of the species in the environment.

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● Antimicrobial Activity of apitoxin, melittin and phospholipase A2 of honey bee (Apis mellifera) venom against oral pathogens

Authors: Luís F. Leandro, Carlos A. Mendes, Luciana A. Casemiro, Adriana H.C. Vinholis, Wilson R. Cunha, Rosana de Almeida and Carlos H.G. Martins

Compounds synthesized by bees have been extensively studied due to their various therapeutic applications. Apitoxin is one of the most important among those produced by bees, contains phospholipase A2 and melittin, which are related to its several biological activities. Considering that oral diseases affect 3.9 billion of people worldwide, the study investigated the antibacterial activity of apitoxin in natura and in the commercially available form, as also, the main components: phospholipase A2 and melittin, alone and in combination. The results showed that apitoxin and its component melittin have potential antibacterial against oral pathogens and could be employed in caries prevention.

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Leaf and inflorescence axis anatomy of Brazilian species of Rapateoideae (Rapateaceae, Poales)

Authors: Ângela L. Daltin, Aline Oriani and Vera L. Scatena

This is an anatomical study of leaves and inflorescence axes of species of Rapateoideae (Rapateaceae) that occur in Brazil. The anatomical characteristics of these organs proved to be of taxonomic value in generic and specific levels and they are also useful to differentiate Rapateoideae from other subfamilies of Rapateaceae.

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Isolation, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of estragole, obtained from the essential oil of croton zehntneri (euphorbiaceae)

Authors: Thallita C.B. Andrade, Sidney G. de Lima, Rivelilson M. Freitas, Márcio S. Rocha, Torequl Islam, Teresinha G. da Silva and Gardenia C.G. Militão

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● Nicotine-enhanced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and its components by myeloperoxidase/H2O2/Cl- system

Authors: Olga M.M.F. Oliveira, Iguatemy L. Brunetti and Najeh M. Khalil

Nicotine, one of the major toxic components of tobacco, enhanced oxidative effect on LDL and some of its components by hypochlorous acid, probably because of the formation of reactive quaternary chlorammonium ions.These data show that the interaction of nicotine and HOCl or Myeloperoxidase (MPO)/H2O2/Cl- system, can promote significant biochemical modifications in LDL particle and some of its components, which are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and other diseases.

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Didelphidae marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia) from the Late Pleistocene deposit of the Gruta dos Moura Cave, northern Brazil

Authors: Patricia Villa Nova, Leonardo S. Avilla and Édison V. Oliveira

The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave and the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domestica and Sairadelphys tocantinensis. The features of these taxa could also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region.

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Taxonomic distinctness and conservation of a new high biodiversity subterranean area in Brazil

Authors: Jonas E. Gallão and Maria Elina Bichuette

Phylogenetic diversity index, such as Taxonomic Distinctness, is employed for the first time for Neotropical caves, more specifically in Brazilian caves, which are under severe threats because of equivocated laws and their related methodologies (normatives). Taxonomic Distinctness measures the differences between fauna in a phylogenetic context and, due this approach, is more appropriate for conservation purposes. This index showed that not necessarily the most richness and/or abundant cave is the most important and, moreover, the index counts the rare and relict species in a single way. In this context, caves from Chapada Diamantina showed a high phylogenetic diversity representing a new spot of subterranean fauna in Brazil and must be preserved.

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Biological associations of color variation in the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii

Authors: Timoteo T. Watanabe, Fernando J. Zara, Gustavo Y. Hattori, Alexander Turra and Bruno S. Sant`Anna

There are many biological invasions in the world and the crab Charybdis hellerii is globally widespread. This study evaluated the color variation in C. hellerii and its relationships with sex, size and sexual maturity. The results showed differences between individuals’ size and color and morphological change in the females’ abdomen. This study highlights the possible relationships of the color and physiological state of the reproductive system.

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The first occurrence of the Order Mormonilloida (Copepoda) in the Tropical Southwest Atlantic Ocean

Authors: Pedro Augusto M.C. Melo, Mauro de Melo Júnior, Moacyr Araújo and Sigrid Neumann-Leitão

This communication is the first report of the occurrence of the order Mormonilloida (Mormonilla phasma) in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Female individuals were found in surface waters from the shelf break state of Rio Grande do Norte (Northeastern Brazil) and between depths of 60 and 100 m in the epipelagic layer around the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (equatorial Atlantic). This finding extends the vertical limits for this species worldwide.

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Setting boundaries: Environmental and spatial effects on Odonata larvae distribution (Insecta)

Authors: Thiago P. Mendes, Helena S.R. Cabette and Leandro Juen

Research about Niche and Biodiversity Biogeography Neutral theories has been the main focus of discussion among ecologists, in order to understand the functioning of  species dynamics and environmental factors effects on  biological diversity. Usually, larvae of Zygoptera and Anisoptera have specific ecological requirements in microhabitats, which is a factor that makes them sensitive to environmental changes, also excellent bioindicators. In this study, the environment proved to be the main structuring agent of Zygoptera assemblages due to their sensitivity and ecological requirements of this suborder, which suffer high influence of environmental conditions.

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A Study of the dry forest communities in the Dominican Republic

Authors: Antonio García-Fuentes, Juan A. Torres-Cordero, Luis Ruiz-Valenzuela, María Lucía Lendínez-Barriga, Juan Quesada-Rincón, Francisco Valle-Tendero, Alberto Veloz, Yolanda M. León and Carlos Salazar-Mendías

About 16.80% of the tropical mass of the planet Earth is covered by dry forests. This type of vegetation is considered to be one of the most endangered plant communities on Earth. Our contribution is a floristic and phytosociological study of the dry forest communities of the Dominican Republic. The most significant results led to the description of six new phytosociological associations comprising thorny dry forest on coastal dunes, hard limestones, saline soils and flat-topped hillocks, as well as several disturbed dry forests. This is an important step forward in the phytosociological and floristic studies of the Caribbean territories.

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● Functional properties of a Brazilian derived mouse embryonic stem cell line

Authors: Leandro Vairo, Emiliano Medei, Danúbia S. dos Santos, Deivid C. Rodrigues, Regina C.S. Goldenberg and Antonio C. Campos de Carvalho

The present work studied the intercellular communication by way of gap junctions in the first Brazilian derived mouse Embryonic Stem cell line (mESC - USP-1, generated by Dr. Lygia Pereira’s group) and characterized its electrophysiological properties. Our results showed that USP-1 mESC have functional Cx43 channels establishing intercellular communication among themselves and with cardiomyocytes and have  electrophysiological profile similar to other mESC cell lines previously described.

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Chemosystematic aspects of polyisoprenylated benzophenones from the genus Clusia

Authors: Maria Carolina Anholeti, Selma R. de Paiva, Maria Raquel Figueiredo and Maria Auxiliadora C. Kaplan

Polyisoprenylated benzophenones arouse great scientific interest, due to their structural variety, complexity and wide range of biological activities. The Clusiaceae family produces large amounts of benzophenones, being the genus Clusia an important source, with 55 polyisoprenylated benzophenones identified so far. These substances were analyzed from biosynthetic and chemosystematics perspectives, allowing the determination of their production, accumulation and distribution patterns within this genus. They occur mostly in flowers and fruits, and although highly prenylated, these substances showed low oxidation indexes, which, evolutionarily, corroborate that Clusiaceae is a family in transition, with common aspects with both basal and derived botanical families.

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Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of Manihot multifida (L.) Crantz (Euphorbiaceae)

Authors: Rodrigo L. Fabri, Daniel S. de Sá, Ana Patrícia O. Pereira, Elita Scio, Daniel S. Pimenta and Luciana M. Chedier

Manihot multifida (L.) Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) is popularly used in Brazil for the treatment of infected wounds. This study examined the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of this species against bacteria and fungi. The methanolic extract of fruits, aqueous and hexane extracts of leaves showed a very strong activity against Candida albicans with MIC of 39 µg/mlmL. The methanolic extract of leaves exhibited DPPH scavenging potential with IC50 values of 46.9 μg/mlmL, followed by hexane extract of leaves with IC50 values of 59.2 μg/mLl. These results corroborate the popular use of M. multifida in the treatment of fungal infections.

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Cytotoxic and toxicological effects of on tumor and normal murine cells

Authors: Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, Patricia Marçal da Costa, Arinice de Menezes Costa, Daisy Jereissati Barbosa Lima, Renata Rosado Drumond, Jurandy do Nascimento Silva, Diogo Rodrigo de Magalhães Moreira, Gevânio Bezerra de Oliveira Filho, Jamile Magalhães Ferreira, Maria Goretti Rodrigues de Queiroz, Ana Cristina Lima Leite and Cláudia Pessoa

Eleven phthalimide derivatives were evaluated with regards to their antiproliferative activity on tumor (Sarcoma 180 and B-16/F-10 cells) and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Compound 4 was the most cytotoxic derivative and triggered membrane disruption, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarization on Sarcoma 180 cells. None of the molecules (3c, 4 and 5) inhibit in vivo tumor growth but compound 4-treated animals exhibited increase in total leukocytes, lymphocytes and spleen relative weight. Molecule 4 possibly caused cell death by apoptosis and presented reversible toxicity on kidneys, spleen and livers and immunostimulant properties that can be explored to attack neoplasic cells.

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Behavirol alterations and Fos protein immunoreactivity in brain regions of bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats

Authors: Luciana Le Sueur-Maluf, Milena B. Viana, Márcia R. Nagaoka,  Ana Laura B. Amorim, Amanda N. Cardoso, Bruna C. Rodrigues, Natália F. Mendes, Jackson C. Bittencourt and Isabel C. Céspedes

Hepatic encephalopathy encompasses a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and psychomotor dysfunction, being a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis. The protocol of bile duct-ligation for the development of hepatic cirrhosis in rats, provoked an increase of ammonia plasma levels, anxiogenic effect detected by Elevated Plus Maze, and significant decreases in Fos-immunoreactivity (neuronal activity marker) in the lateral septal and amygdalar medial nucleus. The cirrhosis was confirmed by histopathological analysis. These results indicate that this cirrhosis model induces anxiogenic results, possibly related to changes in the activation of anxiety-mediating circuitries and to increases in ammonia plasma levels.

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Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport  in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment

Authors: Natasa Spasojevic, Predrag Jovanovic and Sladjana Dronjak

Chronic fluoxetine treatment in depressive patients produced enhancement of plasma catecholamines. Applying Taqman RT-PCR assay, the effects of chronic treatment with a SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine has been investigated on tyrosine hydroxylase, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals with signs of depression. Depressed rats had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both control and rats with signs of depression. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

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General aspects of muscle glucose uptake

Authors: Rafael O. Alvim, Marcel R. Cheuhen, Silmara R. Machado, André Gustavo P. Sousa and Paulo C.J.L. Santos

Glucose uptake in peripheral tissues is dependent on the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. There are two major signaling pathways that lead to the translocation of GLUT4. The first is the insulin activated signaling pathway through insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The second is the insulin-independent signaling pathway. Physical exercise stimulates glucose uptake by insulin-independent pathways, and the main molecules involved are adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide, bradykinin, AKT, reactive oxygen species and calcium. In this review, our main aims were to highlight the different glucose uptake pathways and to report the effects of physical exercise, diet and drugs on their functioning.

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The effects of Cyclosporin A and Heteropterys tomentosa on the rat liver

Authors: Karine M. de Freitas, Jacqueline M. Almeida, Juliana C. Monteiro, Maria Aparecida S. Diamante, Jéssica S.F. do Vale, Camila Camargo, Marçal H.A. Jorge and Heidi Dolder

CyclosporinA (CsA) is a widely used immunosuppressive drug associated with several side effects. Heteropterys tomentosa is a Brazilian plant efficient in reducing damage caused by CsA on the rat testis and prostate. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CsA and H. tomentosa (administered isolated or simultaneously) on the liver of rats. The treatment with CsA for 21 days caused more alteration to the liver than the 56 days treatment; this could be related to hepatic recovery after the long term treatment. The simultaneous treatment with CsA and H. tomentosa did not alleviate nor accentuate CsA hepatic effects.

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Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

Authors: Rui R.F. Ferreira, Rafael R. Gopegui and Augusto J.F. de Matos

There is no consensus regarding total blood volume (TBV) that could be safely donated by dogs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent. Non-sedated dogs only revealed a slight, but significant, systolic arterial pressures (SAP) decrease. Post-donation pulse rates and SAP increased significantly in sedated groups, using ketamine and diazepam, with higher differences after collecting 15% TBV, which may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

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The overexpression of SOX2 affects the migration of human teratocarcinoma cell line NT2/D1

Authors: Danijela Drakulic, Jelena Marjanovic Vicentic, Marija Schwirtlich, Jelena Tosic, Aleksandar Krstic, Andrijana Klajn and Milena Stevanovic

In this article authors revealed that SOX2 overexpression in pluripotent cell line NT2/D1, derived from a metastasis of a human testicular germ cell tumor, changed the speed, mode and path of cell migration, but not the adhesion ability. Furthermore, increased SOX2 expression affected the expression of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and the HDM2 oncogene. Considering that NT2/D1 cells resemble cancer stem cells in many features, results presented here could contribute to the elucidation of the SOX2 role in cancer stem cells and the process of metastasis, which potentially could lead to development of therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy.

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Effect of essential oil from Citrus aurantium in maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly frequency in rats

Authors: Gustavo T. Volpato, Luis A.D. Francia-Farje, Débora C. Damasceno, Renata V. Oliveira, Clélia A. Hiruma-Lima and Wilma G. Kempinas

In traditional medicine, women are the most frequent users of plants. A great number of experimental studies have indicated that the prenatal administration of plants can result in structural and functional suppression of the fetal growth, anomaly and death. A plant used by pregnant women is Citrus aurantium. In this study, it was verified that treatment of Citrus aurantium essential oil was not teratogenic and presented no alterations on the maternal reproductive outcome.

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Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats

Authors: Gurpreet Kaur, Anjana Bali, Nirmal Singh and Amteshwar S. Jaggi

The present study investigated the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathy. The surgical placement of four ligatures around the sciatic nerve led to neuropathic pain in terms of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. Administration of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction attenuated CCI-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It is concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in neuropathy, which may be due to decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels.

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Seabather`s eruption: report of fourteen cases

Authors: André Luiz Rossetto, Fábio Lang da Silveira, André Carrara Morandini, Vidal Haddad Junior and Charrid Resgalla Junior

Seabather’s eruption is epidemic in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida. Reported since 2001 in São Paulo State, the disease is still little known in Brazil. It occurs after seawater exposure showing a pruritic papular erythematous eruption in areas covered by the bathing suits, which act as a filter draining the water and trapping the jellyfish's larvae against the skin. The cnidocytes fire and cause the dermatitis. The authors describe new cases in Santa Catarina State alerting about possible new outbreaks and discuss clinical, therapeutic and preventive measures directed to Health Teams working on the Brazilian coast.

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High Postprandial Triglycerides Serum Levels: Is Obesity a Good Predictor?

Authors: Viviane Nogaroto, Marcos R.S. Rodrigues, Marcelo R. Vicari, Mara C. de Almeida, Fábio Q. Milléo, Fábio A. dos Santos and Roberto F. Artoni

It was analyzed the correlation between triglyceride (TG) serum levels in obese and non-obese patients in a simulated postprandial state. The peak of postprandial TG levels occurred 4 h after the lipid overload in both groups. There was a significant correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and TG at each time point until 2 h after the meal. According to the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve, postprandial TG values were not a good predictor of obesity (based on BMI), but they were a predictor of non-obesity. This study reinforces the importance of measuring non-fasting TG levels in obese and non-obese subjects, indicating that this examination could be an indicator of metabolic risk.

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Does ethnic ancestry play a role in smoking?

Authors: Elisa S.T. de Souza, Luiza F. de Araújo, Dayse O. de Alencar, Sidney E.B. dos Santos, Wilson A. Silva Jr, Cristiane A. Ferreira and José Baddini-Martinez

Ethnic differences in the prevalence of smoking have been recognized in several countries. Higher proportions of smokers among Blacks have been attributed to socioeconomic disparities, but this interpretation may be mistaken, since genetics could theoretically influence the findings. This study looked for associations between smoking status, social conditions and proportion of interethnic admixtures determined by an ancestry-marker panel. The results confirm that socioeconomic disparities, but not ethnic ancestry, are the main determinants of higher smoking rates among Blacks in Brazil. As a consequence, reduction in smoking deeply rests on better education and economic development of people living in disadvantageous conditions.

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Altered hyaluronic acid content in tear fluid of patients with adenoviral conjunctivitis

Authors: Juliana L. Dreyfuss, Caio V. Regatieri, Bruno Coelho, José B. Barbosa, Denise de Freitas, Helena B. Nader and João R. Martins

To better understanding of the pathobiology of the adenoviral conjunctivitis, the tear fluids of patients with unilateral acute adenovirus conjunctivitis (UAAC), normal donors (control) and patients with allergic conjunctivitis (ALC) were analyzed regarding the hyaluronic acid content. Hyaluronic acid plays roles in inflammation and in corneal epithelium wound healing. A profound increase in the hyaluronic acid tear content in UAAC patients was found when compared to control and ALC. The quantification of hyaluronic acid in the tear fluid is a rapid, sensitive and specific test. This molecule might be a biomarker candidate for acute conjunctivitis.

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Gestational diabetes: a risk of puerperal hypovitaminosis A?

Authors: Fernanda B.S. Resende, Larissa Q. de Lira, Evellyn C. Grilo, Mayara S.R. Lima and Roberto Dimenstein

This case-control study aimed to verify the influence of gestational diabetes on vitamin A deficiency among puerperal women. 107 subjects were recruited, corresponding to 71 healthy women (control) and 36 women with gestational diabetes (test). Retinol levels were determined in colostrum milk and maternal serum by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. No difference was found in retinol concentration between groups. However, 16.7% of the cases had vitamin A deficiency and only 4.1% of the control group had this deficiency. Thus, the individual analysis showed that women with diabetes have a higher risk of being deficient in vitamin A.

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Effect of thermal treatments on technological properties of wood from two Eucalyptus species

Authors: Pedro Henrique G. de Cademartori, André L. Missio, Bruno D. Mattos and Darci A. Gatto

This work describes changes on physical, mechanical, chemical and wettability of rose gum and Sydney blue gum woods subjected to thermal treatments. Both species used in this study are widely demanded in Southern Hemisphere for applications such as furniture production and building construction. Two-step steam-heat treatments resulted in a significant decrement of hygroscopicity and mechanical strength of woods. Chemical changes on wood structure are especially related to degradation of hemicelluloses. Dimensional stability increased with increasing of temperature of treatment and surface hydrophobicity was higher in low temperatures of treatment.

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● Physical attributes of ultisol of Brazil`s northeastern semiarid under organic farming of wine grapes

Authors: Jardenia R. Feitosa, Alessandra M.S. Mendes, Nelci Olszevski, Tony J.F. Cunha, Jorge W. Cortez and Vanderlise Giongo

The evaluation of organic cultivation effects of wine grape plantation in the ultisol properties from the semiarid region in Brazil represents a fundamental tool for the local agriculture. This work was elaborated due to the importance and necessity of improving and maintenance of soil quality in the agriculture use, as well as environment quality, and consequently for the human’s healthy preservation. The most important and relevant aspect to be considered is the organic farming in sand soils from the semiarid region in Brazil, which has influence in the environment quality and in the final product.

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Economic aspects of production of Caiman crocodiles yacare

Authors: Laura B.T. Carreira and Omar J. Sabbag

The breeding of crocodilians is still a recent activity in Brazil. Its peak was in the 1990’s. However, its economic potential is great, and the search for ecological balance and viability of commercial production has become a challenge among farmers of this activity. Therefore, the objective of the study was to economically analyze the production of Caiman crocodiles yacare. The economic results for the breeding of this animal were positive, with profitability ratios higher than 70% and the sensitivity analysis showed a loss of up to 5% of its average annual revenues, proving that the activity is economically viable.

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Fitting mathematical models to lactation curves from Holstein cows in the southwestern region of the state of Paraná, Brazil

Authors: Abílio G.T. Ferreira, Douglas S. Henrique, Ricardo A.M. Vieira, Emilyn M. Maeda and Altair A. Valotto

Four mathematical models (developed by Brody, Wood, Dijkstra and Pollott) were evaluated with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in the southwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Milk production records were obtained from “Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH)”. Data were sorted according to the parity order, and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. The four mathematical models were adjusted for each parity order, in each quartile. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations.

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Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown under different light intensities

Authors: Leonardo D.T. Santos, Leandro R. da Cruz, Samuel A. dos Santos, Bruno F. Sant`Anna-Santos, Izabela T. dos Santos, Ariane M. de Oliveira, Rodrigo E. Barros, Márcia V. Santos and Rodrigo M. Faria

Vegetable phenotypic plasticity, process of adaptation of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses, is a fundamental mechanism adopted by such organisms mainly by the inability of locomotion. The variation of intensity and availability of light is an environmental factor promoter of morphophysiology changes in plants. This relationship is particularly relevant for the management of plant species in agroecosystems is how plant of interest or invasive species. Thus, study of physiological adaptation and leaf morphoanatomy of herbaceous legumes like Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides, both potential agricultural species and weeds, in shaded environments is essential for proper management in agroecosystems.

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Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Paula A.P. Ribeiro, Kleber C. Miranda-Filho, Daniela C. de Melo and Ronald K. Luz

According to literature there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish. In the present study, different concentrations of eugenol were evaluated for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia, including five groups of weight: ranging from 0.02g to 11.64g.The concentrations of eugenol varied from 50 to 175 mgL-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02g and juveniles around 11.64g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mgL-1.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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