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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 86 (3) - September 2014


This is the largest issue published by the Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências – AABC) so far, with 45 original papers in a variety of scientific areas. Again, Biological Sciences confirms the growing trend observed along the last years and counts for half of this issue (28), followed by Earth (6) and Agrarian (6) Sciences. This large quantity and increasing quality of the contributions always make it very difficult to select the highlights.

A very interesting paper records the first evidence of the Ediacaran fauna in Northeast Brazil. Not only are those findings unusual in this country, but the described material shows potentially new taxa, contributing to a better knowledge of the first animals that colonized our planet. Among other important contributions, there is a study that provides a mathematical model based on nitrogen flow that establishes limits regarding shrimp culture, a detailed analysis of a core that presents about 8000 years of continuous sedimentation and helps us to better infer the environmental impact caused by climatic changes during the Holocene, and a study of the largest earthquake that rocked Brazil.


Among highlights regarding Biological Sciences is one study that aims to address the quality of water in fishponds. The results were quite disturbing, urging a discussion of better management in the fish industry right at the basis to ensure quality of the product that, at the end, will come to our tables. Other interesting papers are on the trophic groups of an avian community from a fragmented landscape, factors that influence microalgae biomass in respect to the production of biodiesel, the tolerance of desiccated seeds for conservation purposes, and the first reported case of an white (albino) franciscana dolphin.

Lastly, I would like to call your attention on a study on poly-potential drugs based on herbs that can be used in controlling pain in animals and might be applicable to humans, a paper on the effect of caloric restriction regarding the gastrointestinal tract in aging rats, a review that discusses fish immunology, and a study on how the parasite Trypanosoma evansi can affect reproduction.

Please keep in mind that since 2000 all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site. We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner


● Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS

Authors: Joanne M.M. Souza, Strahill Berkov, Alberdan S. Santos

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● First Ediacaran Fauna Occurrence in Northeastern Brazil (Jaibaras Basin, ?Ediacaran-Cambrian): Preliminary Results and Regional Correlation

Authors: Francisco R.G. Barroso, Maria Somália S. Viana, Mario F. de Lima Filho, Sonia M.O. Agostinho

The Ediacaran fauna represents the first animals on the planet, which appeared about 560 Ma (Ediacaran) and became extinct about 540 Ma (Cambrian). These fossils were discovered in South Australia, but actually are registered in several continents being best known in Russia, Canada and South Africa. The fossils of this fauna are relatively scarce in Brazil, and are here reported for the first time in Northeastern part of the country, more specifically from the Municipality of Pacujá in the State of Ceará. Preliminary studies show that there is some diversity in the new material, with potential unknown taxa.

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● Metal content and distribution in surface sediments in an industrial region

Authors: Ismael L. Schneider, Elba C. Teixeira, Maria Lucia K. Rodrigues, Silvia B.A. Rolim

Were evaluated Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Mn, Al, and Fe contents, as well as their geochemical partitioning in Sinos River basin sediments in southern Brazil. The BCR-701 sequential extraction method was applied. Results in the industrialized and densely populated region of the basin showed an increase in the total concentrations of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb; also in the potentially mobile fractions for Cu, Cr, Zn and Ni sequentially extracted. Cr was particularly higher in the Portão stream, showing 1,286 mg/kg of total concentration, thus reflecting the tannery influence in this region.

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● Use of a mathematical model to estimate the impact of shrimp pen culture at Patos Lagoon estuary, Brazil

Authors: Luís H. Poersch, Ângela M. Milach, Ronaldo O. Cavalli, Wilson Wasielesky Jr., Osmar Möller, Jorge P. Castello

A mathematical model based on nitrogen flow was applied to estimate the maximum amount of pink shrimp culture units could be installed at Patos Lagoon Estuary with no significant environment impacts. Using the precautionary principle, the conservative hydrodynamic condition and culture management to simulate different scenarios was adopted, before the aquaculture implementation. Based on modeling results the decision makers can decide about the policy for marine aquaculture development in the region and reduce possible environmental impacts associated with the release of nitrogen.

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● Relation between the sedimentary organic record and the climatic oscilations in the Holocene attested by palynofacies and organic geochemical analyses from a pond of altitude in southern Brazil

Authors: Gabrielli T. Gadens-Marcon, João G. Mendonça-Filho, Margot Guerra-Sommer, Marcelo A. Carvalho, Etiene F. Pires, Léo A. Hartmann

This paper has as main objective to consider the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental significance of the quantitative and qualitative data obtained from palynofacies and geochemistry analyses carried out on a core covering approximately 8000 years of sedimentation of a pond of altitude located at the mining district of Ametista do Sul, southernmost Brazil. The hydrological isolation renders this pond climatically sensitive to variations in the pluviometric regime and this enabled to infer rainfall events during the early Holocene. Therefore the present results are of great importance for understanding the extent of climate change and its environmental impacts at regional and global levels.

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● Structural analysis of the Rio Preto fold belt (northwestern Bahia / southern Piauí), a doubly-vergent asymmetric fan developed during the Brasiliano Orogeny

Authors: Fabrício A. Caxito, Alexandre Uhlein, Luiz F.G. Morales, Marcos Egydio-Silva, Julio C.D. Sanglard, Tatiana G. Dias, Monica C.O. Mendes

Doubly-vergent asymmetric fans are an unusual and interesting feature of many thrust-and-fold belts around the world. The structural analysis of such structures is important for models of tectonic evolution within orogenic and foreland areas. We describe the structural framework of the Rio Preto fold belt in northwestern Bahia state, an exquisite kilometric doubly-vergent asymmetric fan generated during the Brasiliano Orogeny (~600-540 Ma). We consider that the unique structure of the Rio Preto fold belt was generated by the oblique, dextral-sense interaction between the Cristalândia do Piauí block to the north and the São Francisco craton to the south.

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On the footprints of a major Brazilian Amazon earthquake

Author: Alberto V. Veloso

Combining historical accounts and seismological studies this paper reveals the largest known earthquake that rocked Brazil since the beginning of its colonization. The tremor of June 1690 had an estimated magnitude of 7, a felt area of about 2 million km2 and possible epicenter location on the left bank of the Amazon River, 45 km downstream from Manaus. This earthquake caused severe ground failures, generated abnormal waves in the Amazon River creating small tsunami-like waves that flooded native villages on the shores of the Urubu River. Although extremely rare an earthquake of similar strength happening today could produce tragic results especially in metropolitan areas.

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● Action of Aqueous Extracts of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves on Meristematic Root Cells of Allium cepa L.

Authors: Erasmovlane S.B. Neves, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, Leonardo H.G.M. Lima, Ana Paula Peron

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aqueous extracts of dried Phyllanthus niruri L. (stonebreaker) leaves on Allium cepa L. root meristem cells at four concentrations, 0.02 (usual concentration), 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08mg/mL and exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. All concentrations tested demonstrated antiproliferative and genotoxic effects. We also found the presence of cellular aberrations such as colchicined metaphases, anaphasic and telophasic bridges, and micronuclei in the two exposure times for all concentrations evaluated. Further investigations are in progress in order to establish the mechanism of genotoxicity of this medicinal plant.

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● Morphometric differences of Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota (Polypodiaceae) leaves in environments with distinct atmospheric air quality

Authors: Ledyane D. Rocha, Gustavo M. da Costa, Günther Gehlen, Annette Droste, Jairo L. Schmitt

Plants growing in environments with different atmospheric conditions may present changes in the morphometric parameters of their leaves. We compared structural characteristics of leaves of Microgramma squamulosa (Polypodiaceae) in urban and rural environments with different air quality conditions. Based on the fact that significant changes were found in the parameters of the leaves, which could possibly be related to air pollutants, M. squamulosa may be a potential bioindicator, with the advantages of being native and widely distributed in the Neotropics.

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● Antiproliferative action of aqueous extracts of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. (Fabaceae) on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L.

Authors: Lourran P. Lacerda, Geiz Malaquias, Ana Paula Peron

In this study we evaluated the action of crude aqueous extracts obtained from rhytidome of Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá-do-cerrado) on Allium cepa meristematic root cells in three concentrations: 0.082, 0.164, 0.328g/mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. It was found that all three concentrations, including the lowest which is considered ideal for use, in all exposure times, had significant antiproliferative action on the cell cycle of this test system. Under the conditions studied H. stigonocarpa indicated to be cytotoxic.

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● Relationship between spatial distribution of chaetognaths and hydrographic conditions around seamounts and islands of the tropical southwestern Atlantic

Authors: Christiane S. de Souza, Joana A.G. Luz, Paulo O. Mafalda Junior

Relationship between spatial distribution of chaetognaths and hydrographic conditions around seamounts and islands off Northeastern Brazil were analyzed. The species found in the study area were: Pterosagitta draco, Flaccisagitta enflata, Flaccisagitta hexaptera, Pseudosagitta lyra, Serratosagitta serratodentata and Sagitta helenae. Mesopelagic and oceanic species presented the highest densities close to St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (i.e. P. lyra), especially during 1997 when a topography-flow interaction was more pronounced resulting in the formation of a cold dome in surface layers. The distribution patterns of the species detected was closely related to the hydrology of the area analyzed.

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● Structure, histochemistry and phytochemical profile of the bark of the sobol and aerial stem of Tontelea micrantha (Celastraceae - Hippocrateoideae)

Authors: Maria O. Mercadante-Simões, Hellen C. Mazzottini-dos-Santos, Lays A. Nery, Peracio R.B. Ferreira, Leonardo M. Ribeiro, Vanessa A. Royo, Dario A. de Oliveira

The bark of the underground stem of Tontelea micrantha, a native Brazilian Cerrado species, is used in folk medicine for treating kidney ailments. The underground stem is a sobol with unusual cambial activity. Laticifers that secrete terpenoids were present in both organs and can contribute to the identification of the species in field. Mono-crystals were only observed in the sobol. Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids occurred in both types of bark, but carotenoids were only detected in the sobol. The similarities between these two organs indicate that the aerial stem bark represents a plausible alternative to harvesting the sobol.

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● Low water quality in tropical fishponds in southeastern Brazil

Authors: Simone M. Costa, Eleonora Appel, Carla F. Macedo, Vera L.M. Huszar

Aquaculture expansion around the world has heavily impacted the environment. Because fertilizers are needed to raise fish, one of the main impacts is eutrophication. We evaluate the water quality in 30 fishponds in southeastern Brazilian (biotic and abiotic water conditions, and cyanotoxins). High phosphorus concentrations decreased the water quality by increasing cyanobacteria, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and thermotolerant coliforms. Cyanotoxins occurred in low concentrations, possibly because few species were potential producers of microcystins. There was not any single system in the water-quality thresholds to grow fish, according to the Brazilian legislation. Our findings indicate the need for better management to minimize the impacts of eutrophication in fishponds and for a rigorous control to guarantee good food.

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● Do the changes in temperature and light affect the functional response of the benthic mud snail Heleobia australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda)?

Authors: Thaisa R.F. Magalhães, Raquel A.F. Neves, Jean L. Valentin, Gisela M. Figueiredo

The study determined the effect of temperature and light increase on the functional responses of Heleobia australis by conducting experiments in these following conditions: averages of temperature and light incidence in the Guanabara Bay (20°C without light); 30°C without light and, 30°C under low light intensity. The results suggested that an increase in temperature did not negatively affect ingestion rates of snails, whilst light incidence did. This study provided the quantification of ingestion rates of H. australis and enabled us to make predictions of the effects of environmental changes on the ingestion rates of a benthic estuarine organism.

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● Richness, composition and trophic groups of an avian community in the Pernambuco Endemism Centre, Alagoas, Brazil

Authors: Guilherme S. Toledo-Lima, Phoeve Macario, Rachel M. de Lyra-Neves, Bruno P. Teixeira, Luiz A.F. de Lima, Gabriel O.S. Sugliano, Wallace R. Telino-Júnior

Based on mist-netting and systematic observations we provide information on the composition and trophic groups of a bird community in a fragmented landscape in Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. Overall, 112 species were recorded, 76 of which were associated with the forest fragments surveyed. The bird community presented a predominance of insectivorous birds, followed by omnivores. However, specialized trunk-creeping and understory insectivores accounted for only around 15% of this feeding category. The reduced diversity of other guilds and the absence of sensitive species reflect the severe degradation of the local forests, which has greatly reduced the availability of dietary resources and breeding sites.

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● First record of an anomalously colored franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei

Authors: Marta J. Cremer, Camila M. Sartori, Beatriz Schulze, Renan L. Paitach, Annelise C. Holz

On October 2011, a newborn franciscana dolphin with an anomalously coloration was sighted in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. The calf was totally white. The group, composed by the white franciscana calf, his potential mother and one more adult, was reported in five occasions. Both adults had the typical coloration of the species, with the back in grayish brown. Between first and last sighting of the white calf (113 days) the color has not changed. This is the first case of a white franciscana dolphin. We considered the possibility that this franciscana could be an albino dolphin.

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● Management of gillnet fisheries in the south coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Jocemar T. Mendonça, Alineide L.C. Pereira

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● Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures

Authors: Juliana E. Bohnenberger, Luciane O. Crossetti

The production of microalgae biomass can be considered a clean and inexpensive alternative that does not cause environmental impacts. The study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae (Monoraphidium contortum, Chlorella vulgaris, Desmodesmus quadricauda and Microcystis aeruginosa), aiming to use these lipids for biodiesel production. On average, the highest total lipid yields were observed when the strains were maintained at a lower temperature (13°C) and in the non-limiting nitrate medium. The study showed that manipulation of controlling factors may increase the lipid concentration, optimizing the total production of this raw material for biodiesel.

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● All green, but equal? Morphological traits and ecological implications on spores of three species of mosses in the Brazilian Atlantic forest

Authors: Adaíses S. Maciel-Silva, Flávia C.L. da Silva, Ivany F.M.Válio

We characterized spores of the mosses Pyrrhobryum spiniforme, Neckeropsis undulata and N. disticha occurring in two different sites (highland and lowland) of a Brazilian tropical rainforest, with respect to: size; number produced per capsule; viability; and chemical substances compared to other bryophyte species. Length of the sporophytic seta (indicative of spore dispersal ability) was measured in P. spiniforme. Green spores differed regarding storage reserves, viability, size, and number per capsule among species and sites. Pyhhrobryum spiniforme in highland, compared to lowland, had low reproductive effort, many spores, short setae and high availability of substrates for colonization.

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● Reproduction of a whiptail lizard (Ameivula ocellifera, Teiidae) from a coastal area in northeastern Brazil

Authors: Djan Zanchi-Silva, Diva M. Borges-Nojosa, Conrado A.B. Galdino

We studied life history aspects, concerning reproductive traits of the whiptail lizard Ameivula ocellifera. Contrary to our expectations, we found for the coastal population of the species a continuous reproductive pattern. Females’ reproduction peaked at the end of the rainy season, in synchrony to males gonadal activity. Thereby, characterizing a continuous reproduction with variations in reproductive activity. Females A. ocellifera produced a small clutch of two eggs, with the pattern of egg production differing from that of other population. Hence, in our study females seemed to benefit from a large time span to produce a clutch.

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● Re-induction of desiccation tolerance after germination of Cedrela fissilis Vell. Seeds

Authors: Tathiana E. Masetto, Jose M. Faria, Ana C.R. Fraiz

The difficulty in storing non orthodox seeds, especially the recalcitrant ones, is an obstacle for the ex situ conservation. The use of germinated orthodox seeds as a model system for studies on desiccation tolerance (DT) has been suggested. Based on such thought, seeds of Cedrela fissilis, a tree species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest were used in the present study. The re-establishment of DT in C. fissilis germinated seeds was characterized using PEG or PEG +ABA, a phenomenon also potentially associated with the cytological aspects such as nucleus conformation, DNA integrity and stabilization of cellular content, which are necessary to the maintenance of postgermination DT.

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● Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection

Author: Raul Costa-Pereira

Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis) collect clay from specific location in banks along streams for nest building. I sought to understand the substrate selection by bees and the optimum load size. Stingless bees preferred driest clay, but the amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Bees may spend less energy to carry drier clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference.

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● Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae)

Authors: Felipe A. Girardi, Fabiana Tonial, Silvia O. Chini, Andréa M. Sobottka, Simone M. Scheffer-Basso, Charise D. Bertol

The phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The extracts showed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids, with variations among cvs. By Liquid Chromatographic the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, and presented rutin (not detected in the others). The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. These cvs. showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi.

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● Probiotics protect the intestinal wall of morphological changes caused by malnutrition

Authors: Jorge F. de Azevedo, Catchia Hermes-Uliana, Dirlene P. Lima, Débora M.G. Sant’Ana, Gilberto Alves, Eduardo J.A. Araújo

This study analyzed the jejunal wall of protein-malnourished rats treated with probiotic supplement. Rats were assigned in four groups: 1) commercial diet; 2) commercial diet supplemented with probiotics; 3) 4%-protein diet; 4) 4%-protein diet supplemented with probiotics. After 12 weeks, of the jejunum was collected and subjected to histological processing. The probiotic supplement induced hypertrophy in several layers of the jejunal wall in well-nourished rats and reduced the intestinal atrophy usually observed in protein-malnourished animals. Neither malnutrition nor the use of probiotics altered the ratio between the number of goblet cells and enterocytes.

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● Bark Harvesting Systems of Drimys brasiliensis Miers in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest

Authors: Alexandre Mariot, Adelar Mantovani, Maurício S. dos Reis

This study examined the recovery capacity of the bark of D. brasiliensis under different bark harvesting methods in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. The results recommend using strips of bark 2cm wide and 2m long, with 4cm between strips, for effective rates of bark regrowth. None of the treatments resulted in changes in phenological behavior or the rate of increase of diameter at breast height and tree height. The removal of wider bark strips resulted in lower rates of bark recovery and higher rates of insect attack and diseases.

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● Pollen-ovule relation in Adesmia tristis and reflections on the seed-ovule ratio by interaction with pollinators in two vertical strata

Authors: Nadilson R. Ferreira, Lucia B. Franke, Betina Blochtein

The vertical distribution of pollinators is an important component in the foraging pattern of plants strata. This interferes directly in the reproductive system. Niches in two different strata from Adesmia tristis Vogel were evaluated in these aspects. This plant is a shrub Fabaceae from Southern Brazil. The vertical profile in A. tristis has differentiated foraging niches among solitary bees. Megachile genus forage in the upper stratum, and bees of Andrenidae family explore the lower stratum. The upper stratum had more contribution to seed production and breeding system of A. tristis is mandatory allogamy. However, there was evidence of pollination deficit.

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● Annual, seasonal and spatial abundance of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) off the Southeastern coast of Brazil

Authors: Gisele S. Heckler, Mateus Lopes, Sabrina M. Simões, Roberto M. Shimizu, Rogerio C. da Costa

The seabob shrimp is an important fishery resource in Brazil and the knowledge about its distribution is valuable information for improvement of stock management. The abundance of individuals is associated with environmental factors that influence the location and time of reproduction and recruitment. Beyond the samples in Santos Bay, an important Xiphopenaeus kroyeri fishing area, we verify the presence or absence of this species in a larger estuary in the coast of São Paulo State, since the local legal off-season is based in the area of the recruitment of the species, beyond its period.

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● Hepatic steatosis associated with microsporidiosis in teleost fishes from Marajó Island, Brazil

Authors: Marcela Videira, Michele Velasco, Patrícia Matos, Sérgio C. de São Clemente, Osimar Sanches, Patrícia Santos, Edilson Matos

Specimens of the teleost fish Gobioides grahamae were obtained from the municipality of Salvaterra on Marajó Island in the Brazilian state of Pará. Their livers were removed and processed for light microscopy. Overall, 90% of the specimens presented some degree of steatosis of the liver, which was invariably associated with the presence of Microsporidium sp. The present study confirms the occurrence of steatosis in G. grahamae associated with parasitic infections by Microsporidium. The findings indicate that the condition of otherwise healthy fishes in their natural environment may be affected negatively by parasites.

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● Magnetic Parkia pendula seed gum as matrix for Concanavalin A lectin immobilization and its application in affinity purification

Authors: Moacyr J.B.M. Rêgo, Sinara M. Almeida, Sérgio A. Bezerra, Luiz B. Carvalho Júnior, Eduardo I.C. Beltrão

Magnetize Parkia pendula seeds gum was used as matrix for Concanavalin A covalent immobilization. This composite was applied in affinity purification of bovine serum fetuin glycoprotein. Fetuin elution was carried out with a solution of glucose (300mM) and investigated through SDS-PAGE. The efficiency of Con A immobilization and fetuin purification was 63% and 14%, respectively which indicates that magPpeG-Con A is a promising magnetic polysaccharide matrix for immobilization of lectins and application for affinity purification that allows easy recovery by magnetic field.

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● The effect of seasonality on the structure of rotifers in a black-water shallow lake in Central Amazonia

Authors: Clarice C. Nova, Vanessa G. Lopes, Leonardo Coimbra e Souza, Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Talita A.A. Pereira, Christina W.C. Branco

Water’s physical and chemical features vary greatly during distinct phases of the flood pulse. Thus, the aim of our study was to analyze how rotifers assemblage is altered along an environmental gradient caused by such variation. We analyzed samples from a small lake connected to the Negro river during receding and flooding periods of two consecutive years. Rotifer abundance, diversity and composition suffered major changes from one period to another, changes mainly attributed to environmental variations. These results suggest that the flood pulse acts as an imperative force and stressing condition, altering rotifer community dynamics and structure.

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● The scientific literature on Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) from 1982 to 2012

Author: Fabiana G. Barbosa

In this study, a scientometric analysis was performed to identify the patterns, trends and gaps of knowledge on Limnoperna fortunei. A total of 107 papers were published between 1982 and 2012 in 60 journals. Argentina, Brazil, and Japan are the countries that contributed the most papers to the literature on species. Among some important gaps that need to be addressed are the relatively small number and/or lack of studies conducted in the native countries and in countries invaded by species, the lack of internationally collaborative publications in these countries, as well as a low number of internationally collaborative studies.

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● Genotoxic Maillard byproducts in current phytopharmaceutical preparations of Echinodorus grandiflorus

Authors: Elisangela C. Lima-Dellamora, Kassia C.V. Waldhelm, Adriana M. Alves, Claudia A.S. Lage, Alvaro A.C. Leitão, Ricardo M. Kuster

Extracts of Echinodorus grandiflorus (leaves) were evaluated by bacterial lysogenic induction assay. Extracts prepared by infusion and steam sterilized were genotoxic. Isovitexin, isoorientin, swertisin and swertiajaponin were analytically detected, which separately tested negative in the Inductest assay. Browning color and sweet smell developed in heated extracts, prompting further chemical analysis in search for Maillard´s byproducts. Aminoacids and reducing sugars were cast in the extract. Melanoidins were spectrophotometrically detected, and the inhibition of this reaction was observed with its characteristic inhibitor. This is the first paper reporting such compounds in a phytomedicine preparation under a current phytopharmaceutical procedure

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● Angiosperm flora used by meliponine guilds (Apidae, Meliponina) occurring at rainforest edges in the state of Ceará, Brazil

Authors: Luiz W. Lima-Verde, Maria I.B. Loiola, Breno M. Freitas

The study aimed to identify and characterize the flora of the immediate borders of four Atlantic rainforest fragments situated in Baturité massif, state of Ceará, used as food resource by stingless bees. We compiled a total of 82 plant species with a predominance of tree and shrub form. There were different floristic richness between areas and rainfall had differentiated influence on flowering, according to the edge. We concluded that the florist components of the studied edges are relevant to the stingless bee guilds, but alternative management practices are needed to conserve both plant and bee species.

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● Reproduction and management of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ucididae) at Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Bruno S. Sant’Anna, Roberto P. Borges, Gustavo Y. Hattori, Marcelo A. A. Pinheiro

The present study investigated the breeding season of Ucides cordatus and the period of the "andada" phenomenon. The crabs reproduced from October through February. The andada occurred from November through February, with typical characteristics in the first two months, during the full and new moon periods. Based on the results, the period when the andada occurs in other parts of Brazil could be defined, which will aid in managing this fishery. For Iguape, state of São Paulo, Brazil, we suggest a legal off-season for both sexes in December or during the full and new moons, including January.

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● Lead tolerance of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. - Pontederiaceae) as defined by anatomical and physiological traits

Authors: Fabricio J. Pereira, Evaristo M. de Castro, Cynthia de Oliveira, Marinês F. Pires, Marcio P. Pereira, Silvio J. Ramos, Valdemar Faquin

One important question in phytoremediation regards plant physiological and structural mechanisms to cope heavy metal toxicity.  The water hyacinth capacity for the hyperaccumulation of lead and its potential for phytoremediation were previously described, however very little is known about how this plant can tolerate the lead effects. Our work analyses this tolerance mechanisms evaluating the modifications on leaves and roots anatomy, gas exchanges characteristics and antioxidant enzymes activities. One of the most important results is the increasing in water hyacinth photosynthesis in the presence of lead. We discuss this increased photosynthesis as related to leaf anatomy, enhancing CO2 uptake. 

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● Ameliorative potential of Vernonia cinerea on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

Authors: Venkata R.K. Thiagarajan, Palanichamy Shanmugam, Uma M. Krishnan, Arunachalam Muthuraman

Chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve is most widely used model for the testing of anti-neuralgesic agents in experimental research. This technique is used in rat and in mice. It’s one of the models for mono-neuropathic pain and it clinically resembles to the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Various conventional medicines used for the management of CRPS i.e., anti-convulsants, anti-depressants, central and peripheral acting analgesics etc. But clinical utilities are limited due to therapeutic efficacy and side effects. The current research is shifted to poly-potential drugs from herbal origin for the management of painful neuropathy in animal as well as in human.

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In vitro antioxidant capacity of tea of Echinodorus grandiforus, "leather hat," in Wistar rat liver

Authors: Rafaela F. Lunardi, Mariane Wohlenberg, Niara Medeiros, Fabiane Agostini, Cláudia Funchal, Caroline Dani

The present study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Echinodorus grandiflorus "Leather hat" in rat liver. The results indicate that tea has antioxidant activity by itsability to scavenge DPPH radical, as well as different concentrations of tea were able to prevent oxidative damage to lipids and proteins induced by sodium azide, and also the tea was capable to restoring the activity of the SOD and CAT enzymes. Concluding, the E. grandiflorus tea is an option to improve the antioxidant protection in serum and liver against the oxidative damage.

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Scutia buxifolia Reissek essential oil: in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities

Authors: Aline A. Boligon, Mariana Piana, Thiele F. de Brum, Amanda L.F. Froeder, Bianca V. Belke, Thiago G. Schwanz, Débora N. Mario, Sydney H. Alves, Margareth L. Athayde

Twenty-one components (99.93 %) were identified in the essential oil of Scutia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae) stem bark. Spathulenol (35.87 %), β- cubebene (17.26%), germacrene D (6.43%), linalool (5.19 %), carvacrol (4.05%) were the main components of essential oil. This essential oil presented antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 15.03 ± 0.11 μg/mL) and antimicrobial properties, showed moderately active against the Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus sp. (MIC = 500 μg/mL) and Escherichia coli (250 μg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from the S. buxifolia collected from Brazil.

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● Benefits of caloric restriction in the myenteric neuronal plasticity in aging rats

Authors: Joice N.B. Pereira, Renata B. Mari, Sandra R. Stabille, Haroldo G. de Faria, Thais F.M. Mota, Walter M. Ferreira

In gastrointestinal tract, the aging can cause deleterious effects in enteric nervous system that plays an important role in digestion and absorption of nutrients. The involvement of this system affects the hastening of intestinal transit and thus, decreases its absorptive function. Caloric restriction has been used in several studies with the intention of delaying their effects of aging. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of caloric restriction on myenteric neurons of ileum by aging in rats. The caloric restriction has minimized the deleterious effects of aging. It is suggested that caloric restriction can be utilized preventively as it minimizes quantitative changes associated with aging on ileum myenteric plexuses.

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● Fish Immunology. The modification and manipulation of he innate immune system: Brazilian Studies

Authors: Jaqueline D. Biller-Takahashi, Elisabeth C. Urbinati

This is the first review on immune system of fish emphasizing Brazilian studies. The understanding of the fish immune system is essential for developing new technologies and products to improve productivity. Aquaculture in Brazil has shown massive growth in recent years due to methods of culture intensification. However, these procedures led to disease outbreaks, as well as antibiotics misuse. A viable alternative to avoid the chemicals uses is the administration of immunostimulants and prebiotcs. In Brazil there is a lack of studies on fish immune system, but some groups have revealed benefit after the use of these compounds.

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● The Query of Suiable Areas for plantation and development of Taxus baccata L Species by Using GIS in Northern Iran

Authors: Anoshirvan Alami, Alireza Eslami, Seyed A. Hashemi

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● Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

Authors: Adriana P.S. Otero, Ricardo V. Rodrigues, Luís A. Sampaio, Luis A. Romano, Marcelo B. Tesser

Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is considered a promising candidate for aquaculture due to its high growth rates. The thyroid tissue, through thyroxine and triiodothyronine, exert direct influence on fish metabolism, growth, and metamorphosis. The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia. Larvae were sampled from hatching until 53 dah (days after hatching) and prepared for classical histological observations. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

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● Growth and intestinal morphology of juvenile pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg 1887) fed dietary prebiotics (mannanoligosaccharides - MOS)

Authors: Ricardo Y. Sado, Álvaro J.A. Bicudo, José E.P. Cyrino

Intensification of aquaculture production systems exposes fish to numerous stressors, which may negatively affect their growth and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. Therefore, fish farmers are now obliged to conform to Best Management Practices (BPMs) regulations. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as an environmentally friendly practice. This study was set out to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dietary MOS on the growth and intestinal morphology of pacu in attempt to bring more information about prebiotics in neotropical fish nutrition.

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● Feeding and larval growth of an exotic freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), from Northeastern Pará, Amazon Region

Authors: Jean N. Gomes, Fernando A. Abrunhosa, Anne K. Costa, Cristiana R. Maciel

In this study we tested which type and density of food is suitable for larval development of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens. We performed trials with microalgae, rotifers, Artemia and combinations of these diets. We found that larvae are carnivores; however, they have requirements with respect to the type of food, because larvae completed their cycle from the zoeal to the juvenile stage only when Artemia nauplii were available. We also verified that the larvae feed mainly during the day-time, and are opportunistic with respect to the density of food offered.

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● Relationship between testicular lesion and hormone levels in male rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi

Authors: Luciana Faccio, Aleksandro S. da Silva, Alexandre A. Tonin, Lucas Oberherr, Lucas T. Gressler, Camila B. Oliveira, Dionatan T. Oliveira, Manuela B. Sangoi, Rafael N. Moresco, Yasmin N. Samara, Marcelo Veiga, Marta M.M.F. Duarte, Silvia G. Monteiro

Trypanosoma evansi is a parasite that affects domestic and wild animals, presenting several clinical and pathological manifestations, such as influence on reproductionTherefore, our study was planed based on the reproductive problems caused by T. evansi infection and in the lack of data about its mechanisms of action on hormonal and reproductive system of males, especially related to histological changes on testicular tissue. Our results showed that the experimental infection caused a reduction in serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone and estradiol; increased levels of NOx, TBARS, AOPP, and cortisol associated with marked tissue damage and morphological disorders in sperm.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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