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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 86 (2) - June 2014


On behalf of the Editorial Board, I am pleased to introduce the second issue of the Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (AABC) of 2014. A total of 40 articles were published here, all dealing with original research in a great variety of scientific fields.

Among the highlights, I would like to point out a study that investigated distinct aspects of the regrowth of the Amazon forest in areas that have been submitted to a fully deforestation event. Using several variables in a coupled biosphere-atmosphere model, scientists are trying to provide better ways to understand the causes of savannization in the central and southern parts of Amazonia.

Considering the protection of the environment home of endangered species, biologists studied the activity pattern of three viperid snake species from an area of the Atlantic Rainforest biome, clearly showing the necessity to protect the fragments of this forest for conserving biodiversity. Still regarding the Atlantic forest, a second contribution shows for the first time a detailed study of the reproductive biology of a rare frog endemic to this region.

Among other contributions regarding Biological Sciences, I would like to call your attention to an interesting study that establishes how small mammals that coexist in an Araucaria forest have developed different ecological features to best partition resources, and a paper on the reproductive aspects of 16 coastal lizard populations representing five species from different restinga habitats along the eastern coast of Brazil.


Another interesting original research published here is a paper presenting more effective substances that can eliminate parasitic nematodes, responsible for extensive losses in coffee production, and a study that evaluates polymorphism of certain genes and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis.

This issue of the AABC also publishes an article that establishes the effect of coal waste areas on the soil quality and how this could increase DNA mutation rates, and a study of the Saint Peter and Saint Paul peridotite ridge of the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Gravimetric data showed that this region has an active uplift of 1.5 mm/year, what is driven by distinct tectonic forces.

Still regarding Earth Sciences, I would like highlight a study that has established the sea-level fluctuations in the Rio de Janeiro State coastline during the Holocene. Based on geological and biological indicators, this paper will interest scholars working with Quaternary and Holocene issues, including geologists, biologists and archaeologists.

Lastly, there is also a contribution about new fossil shrimps from the Lower Cretaceous deposits of northeastern Brazil, and a paper that uses high resolution seismic in order to establish a framework for Quaternary sequences of the Bahia Blanca estuary, in Argentina. The latter study might help us to understand the factors that have influenced Quaternary geography in other areas of South America.

Please scroll through the text and click on the title of the paper that interests you to be redirected to the SciELO basis. There you can download this and other articles published in the present (and past) issues of the AABC free of charge. Enjoy!

Alexander W. A. Kellner


● Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. Subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita

Authors: Denilson F. Oliveira, Helvécio M. dos Santos Júnior, Alexandro S. Nunes, Vicente P. Campos, Renata S.C. de Pinho, Giovanna C. Gajo

Uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil, produced by Bacillus spp., increased the death of second stage juveniles of the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne exigua, which causes losses in the coffee production. As dihydrouracil was more active against M. exigua than the commercial nematicide Carbofuran, it presents potential to be used in the development of new nematicides. According to an in silico study carried out in the present work, such substance acts against the nematode by inhibiting the enzyme phosphoribosyltransferase, which is very important for the salvage pathways of pre-formed bases in parasites like nematodes.

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● Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil

Authors: Veridiana P. Campaner, Wanilson Luiz-Silva, Wilson Machado

Acid drainage influence on the surface water, groundwater and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil). Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6, and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of chemical elements in the acid drainage and water mixing zone.

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● Hydrodynamic aspects at Vitória Bay Mouth, ES

Authors: Flávia A.A. Garonce, Valéria S. Quaresma

This study aims to investigate salt and suspended particulate matter flux at the estuarine mouth of Vitória Bay (Vitória - ES), by understanding the temporal variation of salinity, temperature and tidal currents within the water column and at the channel cross-section. The results showed that the circulation pattern was mainly influenced by the tide. Despite of what was expected the results showed an importation trend of salt in all cycles and SPM importation for three of the four studied tidal cycles. Thus, Vitória Bay was not exporting SPM to the adjacent inner shelf during the study period.

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● Gravimetric structure for the abyssal mantle massif of Saint Peter and Saint Paul peridotite ridge, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and its relation to the active uplift

Authors: Kenji F. Motoki, Akihisa Motoki, Susanna E. Sichel

Saint Peter and Saint Paul peridotite ridge, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, exposes ultramafic rocks of exhumed oceanic mantle without crust cover. It is 80 km long, 25 km wide, and 3500 m high and strikes in direction sub-parallel to Saint Paul transform fault. Satellite-derived gravimetric data indicate low-degree serpentinization of the mantle peridotite and absence of isostatic compensation. The dense submarine ridge is sustained tectonically by active uplift of 1.5 mm/year, which is the most intense of Brazil. The unparallel relation between the transform fault and the relative plate motion generates near north-south compression stress and the consequent tectonic uplift.

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● A Model Analysis for the Design and Deployment of an Eulerian Sediment Trap Mooring Array in a Western Boundary Upwelling System from Southeast Brazil

Authors: Ursula Mendoza, Rogério N. Candella, Luiz P.F. Assad, Federico V. Castillo, Laura Azevedo, Bastiaan A. Knoppers, Ana Luiza S. Albuquerque

This work addresses the design and configuration of an Eulerian sediment trap mooring array deployed off Cabo Frio, SE - Brazil (23º S). Detailed computations were used to optimize the total weight, buoyancy balance, and maximum acceptable tilt to avoid hydrodynamic bias in the trapping efficiency and array. The line tension was ascertained by using a series of buoys along the array, which attained a high vertical load and a minimum anchor weight. The stable mooring array was reflected by their low calculated tilt. The Reynolds number values and cone-trap aspect ratio were used to assess the trap sampling efficiency.

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● Particle Fluxes and Bulk Geochemical Characterization of the Cabo Frio Upwelling System, Southeastern Brazil: Sediment Trap Experiments between Spring 2010 and Summer 2012

Authors: Ana Luiza S. Albuquerque, André L. Belém, Francisco J.B. Zuluaga, Livia G.M. Cordeiro, Ursula Mendoza, Bastiaan A. Knoppers, Marcio H.C. Gurgel, Philip A. Meyers, Ramsés Capilla

To understand the physical-biogeochemical interactions in the Cabo Frio shelf, a series of four sediment trap experiments was performed from November 2010 to March 2012 on the edge of the continental shelf. Two main physical-geochemical coupling scenarios were identified: downwelling events that enhance particles fluxes and are related to the BC oscillations; and high fluxes events related to the intrusion of SACW in the euphotic zone. Multiple marine and terrestrial sources were identified, in which both Paraíba do Sul River and Guanabara Bay could be land-sources, although the particulate material might subject intense transformation during its trajectory to the shelf edge.

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● Modeling the impact of net primary production dynamics on post-disturbance a Amazon savannization

Authors: Mônica C.A. Senna, Marcos H. Costa, Eric A. Davidson, Carlos A. Nobre

We investigated patterns in the regrowth of the Amazon rainforest after a full deforestation event, considering different types of nutrient stress, using a coupled biosphere-atmosphere model. We found that the reduction of precipitation caused by large-scale deforestation was not sufficient to prevent secondary forest regrowth, but this decrease in precipitation combined with nutrient limitation, did indeed prevent forest regrowth in central and southern Amazonia, leading to a savannization. The low resilience of the forest under nutrient stress indicates that a large scale disturbance could greatly expand the area suitable for cropland, accelerating forest disappearance.

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● C-, Sr-isotope stratigraphy of carbonate rocks from the Southern Espinhaço Ridge, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

Authors: Lucio M.S. Fraga, Soraya C. Neves, Alexandre Uhlein, Alcides N. Sial, Marcio M. Pimentel, Adolf H. Horn

The main purpose of this work is to investigate through isotopic analyses of δ18O, δ13C, and 87Sr/86Sr the behavior of these elements in stratigraphic profiles from the Espinhaço Ridge (Minas Gerais state). This study allowed interpretations of depositional environments and weather conditions, as well as comparing the ages of these rocks, meso or neoproterozoics with the global isotopic curves for these elements. The 87Sr/86Sr isotopic values found in carbonate rocks of the Macaúbas Group (Tijucuçu Profile) and Rio Pardo Grande Formation Profile (Espinhaço Supergroup), show similarity to those found in Neoproterozoic isotopic curve.

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● Seismic Stratigraphy of Pleistocene Deltaic Deposits in Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

Authors: Salvador Aliotta, Silvia S. Ginsberg, Darío Giagante, Laura G. Vecchi, Marta M. Salvatierra

The Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina) occupies a large coastal plain with a dense net of tidal channels. A stratigraphical analysis was carried out using high resolution seismic (3.5 kHz) in order to define Quaternary sequences and sedimentary paleoenvironments. The data show five sequences, of which sequences S1-S2 correspond to a continental paleoenvironment (Miocene-Pleistocene). On these materials were defined S3 and S4, whose lithology and seismic facies (paleochannel structures and prograding reflection configurations) evidence the development of an ancient deltaic environment which was part of a large Pleistocene drainage system. The S5 (Holocene) was formed during the marine transgressive-regressive process.

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● Shrimps from the Santana Group (Cretaceous: Albian): new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Dendrobranchiata) and new record (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

Authors: Allysson P. Pinheiro, Antônio Á.F. Saraiva, William Santana

Here we describe the oldest fossil Penaeoidea shrimp of Brazil. This species is related to several commercially important species present nowadays and it was discovered in the Romualdo Formation, a rich paleoenvironment well known by several fishes, pterosaurs and other vertebrate species from the Early Cretaceous. This fossil shrimp is an indicative of the marine influence on the center of the Brazilian Northeast region, when South America was separating from Africa, about 110 million of years ago. Furthermore, an additional specimen of Kellnerius jamacaruensis, a fossil Caridean shrimp, was found in this area.

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● Sea-level fluctuations and coastal evolution in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

Authors: João Wagner A. Castro, Kenitiro Suguio, José C.S. Seoane, Aline M. da Cunha, Fabio F. Dias

The present paper aims to investigate the relative sea-level during the Holocene in the Rio de Janeiro coastline, based on geological and biological indicators. We have reconstructed a sea-level curve for the Holocene. For the first time on the Brazilian coast a negative record of relative sea-level during Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene transition was identified. After the transition, a relatively rapid increase of sea-level began. The maximum level of +2.5 m was reached between 4770 and 4490 cal yr BP. At the point of maximum transgression, the sea-level began a general behavior of lowering until the present.

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● Common Deletion (CD) in mitochondrial DNA of irradiated rat heart

Authors: Raquel G. Siqueira, Dayse A. da Silva, Luiz D.B. de Melo, Elizeu F. de Carvalho, Samara C. Ferreira-Machado, Carlos E.V. de Almeida

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● Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae) from southern Brazil

Authors: Marcelo C. Rocha, Paulo A. Hartmann, Gisele R. Winck, Sonia Z. Cechin

In this study we evaluated the activity patterns and habitat use by three viperid species from a subtropical area of Atlantic Rainforest biome. Our results show that at the study site these snakes follow the trend of tropical areas: both nighttime and diurnal activity. We observed that the species threatened with extinction tend to avoid matrix areas (cultivated fields), being strictly found in forested areas. Therefore, the protection of Atlantic Rainforest fragments in subtropical Brazil is vital to conserve viperid diversity.

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● Clutch size in populations and species of cnemidophorines (Squamata: Teiidae) on the eastern coast of Brazil

Authors: Vanderlaine A. Menezes, Carlos F.D. Rocha

We analyzed some reproductive aspects of 16 coastal populations, belonging to five lizard species from different restinga habitats along the eastern coast of Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate to what extent the reproductive aspects vary geographically and among species (four bisexual: A. ocellifera, A. abaetensis, A. littoralis, C. lacertoides and one parthenogenetic: A. nativo). We concluded that the five species studied had similar reproductive characteristics: small clutch size (most composed of two eggs), low relative clutch mass (0.129 to 0.159) and mean egg volume varying from 420 to 655 mm3. Larger females in general tended to produce larger clutches.

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● Biotic potential, fertility and life table of Spodoptera albula (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), under controlled conditions

Authors: Débora G. Montezano, Alexandre Specht, Daniel R. Sosa-Gómez, Vânia F. Roque-Specht, Tarcisio M. Bortolin, Edegar Fronza, Patrícia Pezzi, Priscila C. Luz, Neiva M. Barros

This work complements the previous about immature (Montezano et al. 2013), and aims to assess and describe the biological parameters of the development of Spodoptera albula (Walker, 1857), with special emphasis on the biotic potential in life table and fertility, under controlled conditions. We evaluated the longevity periods of pre, post and oviposition, fecundity and fertility of 13 couples. This study is part of a project that aims to detail and compare the biology of different species of the genus Spodoptera on artificial diet, methodology and controlled conditions.

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● Morphological aspects of Clinostomidae metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Hoplerytrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplias malabaricus (Pisces: Erythrinidae) of the Neotropical region, Brazil

Authors: Raimundo N.M. Benigno, Marcelo Knoff, Edilson R. Matos, Delir C. Gomes, Roberto M. Pinto, Sérgio C. São Clemente

This article presents he identification of two trematode species found parasitizing Hoplerytrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplias malabaricus, Neotropical freshwater fish of economic value, adding morphological data to external and internal structures important to taxonomic aspects of the parasite species Clinostomatopsis sorbens and Ithyoclinostomum dimorphum. Beyond that to emphasize the zoonotic importance of this group of parasites related to the disagreeable aspect, due to infected fishes often are discharged either in processing facilities or during inspection procedures, causing economic losses. Take it into account that discharged is recommended and foreseen by the legislation of several countries including Brazil.

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● Protists and bacteria interactions in the presence of oil

Authors: José A.P. Bitencourt, Frederico Sobrinho Silva, Inácio D. da Silva-Neto, Mirian A.C. Crapez

Little is known about the role of protists and bacteria interactions during hydrocarbon biodegradation. This work focused on the effect of oil during 96 h on protists and hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial consortia. We observed in bioassay that protists alone showed a reduced ability to live in the presence of oil. But bacterial consortia can live and emulsify it during bioassay. The growth of the hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contact with oil was followed by the growth of grazing Cryptomonadida from oil-polluted area. Suggesting a transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels and a previous selection by pollutants is important on bioremediation processes.

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● Morphology of the first zoeal stages of five species of the portunid genus Callinectes (Decapoda, Brachyura) hatched at the laboratory

Authors: Fernando L. Mantelatto, Álvaro L.D. Reigada, Aline C.R. Gatti, José A. Cuesta

For this research, we considered an exhaustive analysis on morphology of the first zoeal stage of five species of the portunid crabs genus Callinectes. Principal emphasis was given in details of the diagnostic characters of each zoea species and compared with the available literature in order to find a pattern that supports assertions on the systematic of this genus/family and contextualize the results in a phylogenetic view.

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● Tools used to estimate soil quality in coal combustion waste areas

Authors: Flavio M.R. da Silva Júnior, Vera M.F. Vargas

The study aimed to classify the soil extracts from an area influenced by coal waste according to the guideline values for groundwater described in Brazilian legislation, and to estimate the effects of the leachates ingestion in DNA mutation rates. The volume needed to induce a 100% increase in the spontaneous mutation rate varied from 129.3 to 1544.1 mg of soil. Some metals surpassed the investigation limits for groundwater at least in one soil sample. The results showed that soil contaminants can be transferred off to groundwater and soil intake in the area could contribute to the increased mutagenic risk.

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Trichostrongylus and Haemonchus anthelmintic resistance in naturally infected sheep from southern Brazil

Authors: Vanderlei Klauck, Rafael Pazinato, Leandro S. Lopes, Diego C. Cucco, Horacio L. de Lima, Andreia Volpato, Willian M. Radavelli, Lenita C.M. Stefani, Aleksandro S. da Silva

Gastrointestinal parasites affect sheep production causing economic losses due to weight loss, decreased milk and wool production, and are the leading cause of death among infected untreated animals. The anthelmintic resistance in small ruminants is a common problem and concern worldwide. This research observed that farms in the western region of Santa Catarina have anthelmintic resistance to closantel, albendazole, and levamizole; i.e. the FECRT was less than 95% in all farms investigated. Errors related to the management and use of incorrect treatments can accelerate this process of resistance, which probably occurred in the analyzed farms in this study.

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● Floristics and Reproductive Phenology of Trees and Bushes in Central West Brazil

Authors: Vivian A. Assunção, José C. Casagrande, Ângela L.B. Sartori

This work was undertaken on a Serra de Maracaju slope, between Pantanal and Cerrado, in western Brazil. Environmental conditions can determine and favor the occurrence of certain species and interfere with the reproductive period of plants. The observed phenological pattern for flowering differed from the expected in seasonal environments. This report points to specificities of the assessed plant communities. The preponderance of zoochory highlights the importance of animal-plant interactions to maintain the studied community. Nevertheless, abiotic syndromes do play a crucial role for Serra de Maracaju, formed by many slopes, which create physical barriers to biotic agents.

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● Natural sesquiterpene lactones as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

Authors: Homa Hajimehdipoor, Mahmoud Mosaddegh, Farzaneh Naghibi, Ali Haeri, Maryam Hamzeloo-Moghadam

The ability of three sesquiterpene lactones, gaillardin and pulchellin C from I. oculus-christi and britannin from I. aucheriana, to inhibit AChE has been evaluated by Ellman assay. AChE inhibitory activity was obtained as 67.0, 25.2 and 10.9% in concentration of 300 μg/L for gaillardin, britannin and pulchellin C, respectively. Among the three sesquiterpene lactones, gaillardin with 67% inhibition of AChE could be considered in future Alzheimer studies.

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● Patterns of arboreal and terrestrial space use by non-volant small mammals in an Araucaria forest of southern Brazil

Authors: Maury S.L. Abreu, Larissa R. de Oliveira

Similar species that coexist spatially frequently show differences on their ecological features allowing the resource partitioning. With a total effort of 3047 trap-nights, we investigated patterns of arboreal and terrestrial space use by small mammals in an Araucaria Forest from southern Brazil, a subtropical forest type included in the domain of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We describe arboreal space use and microhabitat associations from poorly known rodent species as Akodon serrensis and Juliomys sp. We demonstrated that vertical stratification and microhabitat use were both synergic mechanism to determine habitat use by small mammals on the Araucaria Forest of southern Brazil.

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● Taxonomic notes on Lyroglossa and Pteroglossa (Orchidaceae: Spiranthinae): two new generic records for the flora of Rio Grande do Sul

Authors: Cristiano Roberto Buzatto, Rodrigo B. Singer, Sérgio A.L. Bordignon

Two orchids species are first recorded for Rio Grande do Sul. Vegetative and floral features of Lyroglossa grisebachii and Pteroglossa macrantha are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Data on taxonomy, distribution and ecology are provided.

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In vitro cytotoxic, antifungal, trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of acetogenins isolated from Annona cornifolia A. St. -Hil. (Annonaceae)

Authors: Luciana A.R.S. Lima, Tânia M.A. Alves, Carlos L. Zani, Policarpo A. Sales Júnior, Alvaro J. Romanha, Susana Johann, Patrícia S. Cisalpino, Lúcia P.S. Pimenta, Maria Amélia D. Boaventura

Annona cornifolia A. St. -Hil. is a small annual perennial tree found in the Brazilian savannah; its green fruit is popularly used in the treatment of ulcers. Four binary mixtures and ten pure adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, isolated from seeds of this species presented cytotoxic activity against three human tumor cell lines; leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities, with inhibition of 87% of L. amazonensis amastigotes and 100% of T. cruzi amastigotes and trypomastigotes forms, when tested at the concentration of 20 μg/mL. Also, six acetogenins showed more activity against all the three tested isolates of P. brasiliensis than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a drug used for treating paracoccidioidomycosis.

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● Structure of potamoplankton along a gradient of preservation of riparian vegetation in subtropical streams

Authors: Denise Peresin, Lezilda C. Torgan, Uwe H. Schulz, Luciane O. Crossetti

Water quality in lotic systems is greatly influenced by the land use in the adjacent areas. The study evaluated whether different degrees of preservation of riparian forest (from well preserved with 30 m wide up to degraded with < 5 m wide) influenced potamoplankton community structure in subtropical streams. Increasing trends on the potamoplankton biomass, richness and diversity of species, and higher concentrations of total phosphorus and nitrogen in the non-preserved areas indicated that the different gradients of preservation of riparian vegetation were related with the water quality in subtropical streams and consequently with the potamoplankton structure.

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● Polymorphisms in CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity

Authors: Tais C. Brito, Lia G. Possuelo, Andreia R.M. Valim, Pâmela F. Todendi, Andrezza W. Ribeiro, Tatiana S. Gregianini, Carla A. Jarczewski, Mara H. Hutz, Maria Lúcia R. Rossetti, Arnaldo Zaha

Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis (ATD-induced hepatitis) has been linked to polymorphisms in genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes. This study was designed to determine the frequency and to evaluate whether polymorphisms at CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes are associated with drug response, as well as to identify clinical risk factors for hepatotoxicity, in a population undergoing treatment for TB with isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide (RHZ) from Southern Brazil. In conclusion, our study indicated that NAT2 slow acetylator profile, HIV, extrapulmonary TB and female sex predispose an individual to ATD-induced hepatitis.

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● Reproductive biology of a bromeligenous frog endemic to the Atlantic Forest: Aparasphenodon arapapa Pimenta, Napoli and Haddad, 2009, (Anura, Hylidae)

Authors: Amanda S.F. Lantyer-Silva, Mirco Solé, Juliana Zina

The bromeligenous frog Aparasphenodon arapapa inhabits Mussununga Forests in southern Bahia, where he breeds inside bromeliads. We describe the complex courtship behavior and the parental care of the species. We were able to demonstrate that this species shows temporal fidelity between male and female, something highly uncommon in amphibians. We further propose a new reproductive mode defined as “eggs and exotrophic tadpoles in water in phytotelmata with parental care” which besides A. arapapa would include other amphibian species like Osteopilus ocellatus, Kurixalus eiffingeri, Trachycephalus resinifictrix and Anotheca spinosa. With this new mode all kinds of phytotelmata breeders are now contemplated.

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● Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. Fruits and branches

Authors: Mariana Piana, Aline A. Boligon, Thiele F. de Brum, Marina Zadra, Bianca V. Belke, Amanda L.F. Froeder, Janaína K. Frohlich, Letícia T. Nunes, Lauren Pappis, Alexandra A. Boligon, Margareth L. Athayde

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● Sequential sampling of Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cassava crop

Authors: Antonio S. Silva, Thiago A. Mota, Marcos G. Fernandes, Samir O. Kassab

For sampling of adults of B. tuberculata (Bondar) is correct to check the first three semi-developed apical leaves, which is the main site of the pest. One of the advantages of sequential sampling plans is that they are fast, efficient and cheap, assisting the producer in making the decision of the control of the pest. This sequential sampling results in two methods of decision-making of controlling B. tuberculata pest of cassava crop: first with the use of biological control and second with the use of chemical control.

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● Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

Authors: Meire C.N. Andrade, João P.F. Jesus, Fabrício R. Vieira, Sthefany R.F. Viana, Marta H.F. Spoto, Marli T.A. Minhoni

Irradiation doses on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms cultivated in composts. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme. Subsequently, the control and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms.

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● Uptake and translocation of Cd and Zn in two lettuce cultivars

Authors: Renildes L.F. Fontes, Juliana M.N. Pereira, Julio C.L. Neves

Cadmium and Zn transference from soil to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars (CRV and CMM) was evaluated. In both cultivars, old leaves had higher Cd and Zn concentrations (and lower dry matter yield) than young leaves. The CRV and CMM cultivars accumulate Cd differently in the leaves and the higher accumulation occurs in the former. Cultivar CRV also accumulates more Zn compared to CMM. There was Cd translocation from young to old leaves in CMM but not in CRV whereas for Zn it occurred in both cultivars, being higher in CRV.

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● Optimization of Phenolics and Flavonoids Extraction Conditions and Antioxidant Activity of Roasted Yerba-Mate Leaves (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae) using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Débora C. Bassani, Domingos S. Nunes, Daniel Granato

This study focused on maximizing the extraction of total phenolics and flavonoids as well as the antioxidant activity from roasted yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) as a function of time and temperature of extraction. Using the desirability function, the optimum operating conditions to obtain a higher extraction of antioxidants was found to be 10 min of extraction at 90°C, and the tea prepared under these experimental conditions presented 427.74 mg of gallic acid equivalents per liter and 80.02% of inhibition of the DPPH radical. The flavonoid content was highly correlated (r = 0.9046, p < 0.001) to the antioxidant capacity.

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● Extraction and characterization of lipids from Sarcocornia ambigua meal: a halophyte biomass produced with shrimp farm effluent irrigation

Authors: César S.B. Costa, Juliano R.M. Vicenti, Joaquín A. Morón-Villarreyes, Sergiane Caldas, Liziane V. Cardoso, Ricardo F. Freitas, Marcelo G.M. D`Oca

Sarcocornia ambigua is a potential new seed-oil crop and forage for direct irrigation with salt water. This work evaluated different extraction methods and the fatty acids composition in a meal of ground fertile shoots of S. ambigua. The highest lipid yield was obtained with a chloroform: methanol mixture (2:1) (v/v) (5.2% of dry weight). The most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids were linoleic acid (C18:2; 21.4%) and oleic acid (C18:1; 18.3%). Fifty six percent of the lipids in S. ambigua meal were saturated and palmitic acid (C16:0) was the main fraction (19.8%). Long-chain fatty acids (≥ C20) represented 29.5% of the lipids.

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● Use of the correlation between input variables in estimating the risk of feedlot finishing of steers and young steers

Authors: Paulo S. Pacheco, João Restle, Leonir L. Pascoal, Fabiano N. Vaz, Ricardo Z. Vaz, Karoline G. Valença, Janaine L. Olegario

The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of feedlot finishing of steers and young steers, using or not a correlation between the random input variables. The simulation of the Net Present Value (NPV) financial indicator. For the NPV simulation, Latin Hypercube sampling was used, with 2000 interactions. The stochastic dominance analysis, test of differences between pairs of curves of cumulative distributions and sensitivity analysis were carried out. The sensitivity analysis determined the items of greatest impact on the estimated NPV: prices of fat and thin cattle, initial and final weights, diet costs, minimum rate of attractiveness and diet intake.

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● Implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) for the planning of beekeeping in the west region of Paraná

Authors: Simone C. Camargo, Regina C. Garcia, Armin Feiden, Edmar S. de Vasconcelos, Bruno G. Pires, Alceu M. Hartleben, Fernanda J. de Moraes, Luan de Oliveira, Juyverson Giasson, Eduardo S. Mittanck, Jeferson R. Gremaschi, Diana J. Pereira

One Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed to geographical location of apiaries and storage of information in eight counties in western Paraná, evaluating local flora, land cover and honey production in the 2010 crop in Marechal Cândido Rondon (MCR) and Santa Helena (SH). Beekeepers (126) and apiaries (383) were registered and were selected areas with higher and lower overlap of hives in the two counties, to study the parameters mentioned. The multivariate analysis showed higher average production in hives of most populated area of SH and lower in the most populated MCR, differences associated with management, flora and climate involved.

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● Biological characteristics of Heliothis virescens fed with Bt-soybean MON 87701 x MON 89788 and its conventional isoline

Authors: Orcial C. Bortolotto, Adeney F. Bueno, Karla Braga, Gustavo C. Barbosa, Alisson Sanzovo

Biology of Heliothis virescens in Bt-soybean, MON 87701 x MON 89788, and its isogenic non-Bt was evaluated. Bt- soybean caused 100% mortality. Larvae of 1st and 3rd instar were unable to damage fresh pods, regardless of whether Bt or non Bt. Larger larvae (5th instar) fed on Bt-soybean consumed three times less and result in reduced longevity and larval survival. When plants were infested with 5th instar larvae, H. virescens injured the steams of the conventional soybean. It was recorded that the insects moves quickly to this region of the plant where they can severely damage the plant.

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● Rheological and some physicochemical characteristics of selected floral honeys from plants of Caatinga

Authors: Francisco K.G. Santos, Antonio N. Dantas Filho, Ricardo H.L. Leite, Edna M.M. Aroucha, Andarair G. Santos, Thiago A. Oliveira

Five honeys with floral predominance of typical plants foraged by honey-bees in Caatinga have been analyzed. Highest moisture contents were observed in honeys from Combretum leprosum, Croton campestris and Hyptis suaveolens while lowest values were observed in honeys from Croton sonderianus and Mimosa tenuiflora. Fructose was found to be the main sugar in all honey samples. High fructose-glucose ratios, ranging between 1.24 and 1.39, indicate a low tendency to crystallize for all analyzed honeys. Honey samples from Mimosa tenuiflora exhibited a high glucose-water ratio, 1.8 in mean, indicating that this honey has higher propensity to crystallize. Honey viscosity rise exponentially with moisture content decreasing and was adequately described as function of temperature and moisture content.

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● Characterization of granite and limestone powders for use as fillers in bituminous mastics dosage

Authors: Breno Barra, Leto Momm, Yader Guerrero, Liedi Bernucci

The approach of this paper is focused on details that are not deeply discussed by the majority of the publications regarding the formulation of bituminous mastics, e.g., the interaction of physical and chemical characteristics of the mineral fillers in activating several chemical bond types, which are decisive for reaching a final product able to be applied in asphalt pavement structures in the field. Also, the laboratory routine carried out is easy to be reproduced by other researchers, which allows to compare the results obtained, contributing for the continuous advance of researches on materials employed in asphalt mix formulations.

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● An efficient certificateless blind signature scheme without bilinear pairing

Authors: Guofagn Dong, Fei Gao, Wenbo Shi, Peng Gong

In order to improve performance, a certificateless blind signature (CLBS) scheme without using bilinear pairing was proposed in this paper. For the security of the proposed scheme we proved that it was provably secure against both two kinds of attacks in the random oracle model. For performance of the proposed scheme, we demonstrated that it had better performance than all related CLBS schemes using pairings. Therefore, the proposed scheme is more suitable for practical applications.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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