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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

AABC - Volume 86 (1) - March 2014


The first issue of this year (86-1) is also the largest ever published by Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências - AABC), with 40 original papers. This shows the efforts of the Direction of the Academy and the Editorial Board of the AABC in promoting the publication of original research in all major areas of Science.

Among the highlights is the contribution on the tectonic evolution of the southern margin of the Amazonian craton whose new U-Pb zircon dates help us to better understand the geologic development of the northern part of Brazil. Another paper describes the geological settings of the lava deposits of Rio Grande do Sul, where thousands of world-class amethyst geodes have been quarried and embellish the mineral collections of natural history museums all around the world.

Still regarding Earth Sciences, there are several interesting publications on fossils such as the paleobiogeography and paleoecology of compsognathids, a group of small carnivorous dinosaurs. There is also the description of a new extinct shark and studies concerning species of the megafauna from Brazil and other parts of South America.

The area of Biological Sciences continues to be the largest one in this periodical. Among the studies published in this issue are the feeding habits of anurans of southeastern Brazil and the antioxidant potential and cytotoxic activity of two marine algae that have shown to play an important role in protecting cells during aging. It is also worth pointing out a paper that shows the contamination of cyanobacteria toxins in drinking water supply reservoirs, which have the potential of damaging public health if appropriate measures are not taken.

What are the effects of triathlon training? A study published in the present issue of the AABC shows that this kind of physical preparation can affect the kidney function of triathletes. In Chemical Sciences I would like to point out to the study on the effect of air pollutants on coastal areas close to large urban centers, taking Bahia de Todos os Santos in Salvador (Northeast Brazil) as a model.

Lastly, I would like to highlight a study that shows the strength and power of different scientific communities and how they were obtained, providing a general idea of the scientific field in Brazil from the perspective of social scientists.

Please keep in mind that since 2000 all papers published by the AABC can be downloaded free of charge at the SciELO site. We are now inviting you to scroll through the text and click on the title of the article that interests you!

Alexander W. A. Kellner



● New classes of spatial central configurations for the 7-body problem

(Antonio Carlos Fernandes and Luis Fernando Mello)

For the Newtonian N-body problem a configuration of the system is central if the acceleration of each body is proportional to its position relative to the center of mass. Spatial central configurations give rise to homothetic orbital motions which are the simplest solutions of the N-body problem. We show the existence of new families of spatial central configurations for the 7-body problem with six bodies at the vertices of two equilateral triangles and one body located out of the parallel distinct planes containing these triangles. The results have simple and analytic proofs.

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● A mean-field Babcock-Leighton solar dynamo model with long-term variability

(Sabrina Sanchez, Alexandre Fournier, Katia J. Pinheiro and Julien Aubert)

In this work we consider a Babcock-Leighton solar dynamo numerical model in order to study the variability of the solar cycle. Besides the main solar cycle features being well reproduced, long-term variability
of the solutions exhibits lengthy periods of minimum activity followed by posterior recovery, akin to the observed Maunder Minimum. Based on the analysis of the residual activity during periods of minimum
activity, we suggest that these are caused by a predominance of the α-effect over the Babcock-Leighton mechanism in regenerating the poloidal field.

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● Sol-gel as methodology to obtain bioactive materials

(Thiago J. Ribeiro, Omar J. de Lima, Emerson H. Faria, Lucas A. Rocha, Paulo S. Calefi, Katia J. Ciuffi and Eduardo J. Nassar )

In recent decades technological advances have occurred very fast, and old and new problems also have occurred more often. New cars, new equipment, and new construction, has resulted in new, and more serious, accidents and diseases. These facts have developed new materials for bio applications used for partial or total replacement of the human body. Our research group has been working in the preparation of materials via sol-gel method for use as a bone substituent that can induce the human body to regenerate bone that has suffered injuries caused by accidents or degenerative diseases.

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● Atmospheric particle dry deposition of major ions to the South Atlantic coastal area observed at Baía de Todos os Santos, Brazil

(Stelyus L. Mkoma, Gisele O. da Rocha, José S.S. Domingos, João V.S. Santos, Manuela P. Cardoso, Rogério L. da Silva and Jailson B. de Andrade)

The coastal atmosphere adjacent to large urban areas can be affected by the emission of major ions. The mean concentrations of total carboxylates were 78 in fine and 81 ng m-3 in coarse fractions of PM. The inorganic ions were 2143 and 4880 ng m-3 respectively. Sources for fine particles were: photochemical formation of carboxylic acids in vapor phase and gas-to-particle conversion onto seasalt particles; emissions from anthropic sources with long range transportation; and the interchanging of volatile species among atmospheric phases. For coarse particles, the sources were: gas-phase species ab/adsorbed onto particles; emission from anthropogenic sources; and seasalt spray.

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● Tectonic evolution of the southern margin of the Amazonian craton in the late Mesoproterozoic based on field relationships and zircon U-Pb geochronology

(Gilmar J. Rizzotto, Léo A. Hartmann, João O.S. Santos and Neal J. McNaughton)

New U-Pb zircon data integrated with field relationships and airborne geophysical survey shows that the Nova Brasilândia, Aguapeí and Sunsás belts, in the southwestern Amazonian craton, are part of the same monocyclic, metaigneous and metasedimentary belt, which became interconnected at the end of the Mesoproterozoic (1150 Ma - 1110 Ma), and has a curvilinear shape of 1,000 km in length, here termed the Western Amazon belt (WAB). The opening of the rift that preceded the development of the Nova Brasilândia-Aguapeí belts originated from the reactivation of a paleo-suture. The WAB was formed during the accretion of the Arequipa-Antofalla basement to the proto-Amazonian craton.

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● Geology, petrography and geochemistry of the A-Type granites from the Morro Redondo Complex (PR-SC), southern Brazil, Graciosa Province

(Frederico C.J. Vilalva and Silvio R.F. Vlach)

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● Use of convolution and geotechnical rock properties to analyze free flowing discharge test

(Edson Wendland, Luís Henrique Gomes and Rodrigo M. Porto)

In this work, the interference between a 1244 m deep flowing well and an observation well is evaluated in order to determine the hydrogeological parameters of the confined Guarani Aquifer System. Discharge test data are analyzed according to the Jacob and Lohman method, obtaining non unique solutions. The convolution technique is applied for the reconstruction of observed drawdown curves demonstrating that some estimated parameters are unsuitable. Obtained transmissivity (T = 411.0 m2/d) and storage coefficient (S = 2.75x10-4) are close to values estimated by direct evaluation of the geotechnical sandstone properties.

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● Note on the paleobiogeography of Compsognathidae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) and its paleoecological implications

(Marcos A.F. Sales, Paulo Cascon and Cesar L. Schultz)

This study focuses on the paleoecology of Compsognathidae, a group of tiny meat-eating dinosaurs. They were once interpreted to have been specifically adapted to inhabit semi-arid environments. However, our review of the localities where those animals were found suggests a different scenario. First of all, the fossil record of these animals might not enable secure generalizations to be applied for them. Moreover, our main point is that at least the Chinese species also inhabited forested habitats with non-arid climates, so these animals should have been more generalists than previously thought.

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A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil

(Victor E. Pauliv, Eliseu V. Dias, Fernando A. Sedor and Ana Maria Ribeiro)

During the Middle to the Late Paleozoic (approximately 355 to 250 million years ago) one of the most representative sharks known around the world were the Xenacanthiformes. The present work describes a new species of these strange sharks, collected in an outcrop of the municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná, Brazil, Rio do Rasto Formation (Late Permian), Paraná Basin. The fossil assemblage discovered together with the new species and in the Rio do Rasto Formation indicates a new freshwater record for these sharks.

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● The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects

(Paulo V. Oliveira, Ana Maria Ribeiro, Édison V. Oliveira and Maria Somália S. Viana)

This paper deals with dasypodidae osteoderms from early Holocene, collected in the Urso Fóssil Cave, Ubajara, Ceará, Brazil. The presence the Dasypus novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cabassous sp. can contribute to the understanding of the biotic evolution of the northwest region of Ceará during the last 10,000 years. The fauna includes animals with generalist feeding habits and current wide geographical distribution. It is suggested, therefore, that the climatic and environmental conditions in the early Holocene were similar to the actual ones; the absence of Cabassous may be conditioned to factors such anthropogenic action and loss of habitat by fragmentation of the vegetation.

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● Distributional patterns of †Mawsoniidae (Sarcopterygii: Actinistia)

(Raphael Miguel, Valéria Gallo and Juan J. Morrone)

Mawsoniidae are a fossil family of actinistian fish popularly known as coelacanths, which are found in continental and marine paleoenvironments. We undertook a panbiogeographical analysis, and obtained three generalized tracks in strata of the Newark Group (Upper Triassic), the Lualaba Formation (Upper Jurassic), and the Itapecuru-Alcântara-Santana formations (Lower Cretaceous). Events related to the breakup of Pangaea and Gondwana and the evolution of the oceans are suggested as the vicariant events modeling the distribution of this taxon throughout the Mesozoic.

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● Monazite ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology in the LAGIR laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University: protocols and first applications to the assembly of Gondwana supercontinent in SE-Brazil

(Carla C.A. Neto, Claudio M. Valeriano, Claudia R. Passarelli, Monica Heilbron and Marcela Lobato )

Chemical and spectrometric procedures for U-Pb geochronology on monazite, recently installed in LAGIR laboratory (UERJ - Rio de Janeiro), are described. Results are reported from three case studies related to Brasiliano orogenic belts of SE-Brazil: monazites from a quartzite of the Araxá Group (southern Brasilia belt) define a concordia age of 602.6 ± 1.4 Ma; monazites from a quartzite of the São Fidelis Group (Costeiro Domain, central Ribeira belt) yielded a concordia age of 535.3 ± 2.4 Ma; and monazite grains from the post-collisional Itaoca Granite (Costeiro Domain, central Ribeira belt) define a concordia age of 476.4 ± 1.8 Ma.

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● Stratigraphy of amethyst geode-bearing lavas and fault-block structures of the Entre Rios mining district, Paraná volcanic province, southern Brazil

(Léo A. Hartmann, Lucas M. Antunes and Leonardo M. Rosenstengel)

The complex processes associated with the rifting of a supercontinent and the drifting of Africa away from South America included the systematic faulting of the Paraná volcanic province in the Cretaceous and the associated world-class amethyst geode deposits. The integrated use of field geology, rock geochemistry and rock gamma-spectrometry led to the identification of seven basalt flows and one rhyodacite flow in the Entre Rios mining district, Santa Catarina. The varied types of Esmeralda, Paranapanema and Pitanga basalts and their contained geode deposits were downthrown to the west up to 200 m. This is an essential parameter in the understanding of the volcanic province and its contained ore deposits.

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● Different slopes of a mountain can determine the structure of ferns and lycophytes communities in a tropical forest of Brazil

(Felipe C. Nettesheim, Elaine R. Damasceno and Lana S. Sylvestre)

Increasing evidence shows that terrain topography has an important role in structuring tropical forest plant communities. This effort evaluated the prediction that a Ferns and Lycophytes community would exhibit a floristic and structural differentiation pattern between contiguous slopes with different geographic orientations. The pattern of community floristic and structure variation was confirmed but no difference was detected for richness, plant cover or abundance. Few species were shared between the slopes and some were appointed as indicators of the community variation. Evidence corroborates topography affects tropical forest plant community variation but calls attention for the need of addressing which processes determine such patterns.

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● Juvenile development of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae) under laboratory conditions

(Eduardo A. Bolla Jr, Vivian Fransozo and Maria Lucia Negreiros-Fransozo)

The juvenile development of Callinectes danae was investigated from megalopae obtained in neuston samples. The main morphological features of the first juvenile stage and some subsequent stages were drawn and described. Sexual dimorphism becomes apparent from the fourth juvenile stage onwards. The characteristics of some appendages and its setation proved to be of great importance in the identification of species, including the number of segments of the antennal flagellum and the number of setae on the maxilla and on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillipeds. These features could be useful for future ecological studies, morphological comparisons and species identifications.

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● Wind pollination and propagule formation in Rhizophora mangle L. (Rhizophoraceae): resource or pollination limitation?

(Tarcila L. Nadia and Isabel C. Machado)

We investigated the pollination system of Rhizophora mangle. Although there are some publications which indicate wind and insect pollination, our results show exclusively wind pollination from detailed analyses of the anthesis and animal behavior. We proposed a new anemophily index that strengthens our results. Furthermore we observed the developing of propagules from natural pollination to their dispersion. It allowed us to record the critical developmental stage for survival of new progeny.

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● Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae) from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

(Lívia Coco, Vitor N.T. Borges Júnior, Luciana A. Fusinatto, Mara C. Kiefer, Jane C.F. Oliveira, Pablo G. Araujo, Bianca M. Costa, Monique Van Sluys and Carlos F.D. Rocha)

Our manuscript provides qualitative and quantitative information about the diet of two populations of the anuran Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824), from two areas in southeastern Brazil. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume. The categories Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Blattodea, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important preys consumed. The relations between body dimensions of the anuran and ingested prey showed that the jaw width limited the prey size in one of the populations. The manuscript may contribute with the knowledge of anuran feeding habits, being the first to describe the diet of Haddadus binotatus.

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● Antioxidant potential and cytotoxic activity of two red seaweed species, Amansia multifida and Meristiella echinocarpa, from the coast of Northeastern Brazil

(Daniel B. de Alencar, Suzete R. da Silva, Kelma M.S. Pires-Cavalcante, Rebeca L. de Lima, Francisco N. Pereira Júnior, Márcia B. de Sousa, Francisco A. Viana, Celso S. Nagano, Kyria S. do Nascimento, Benildo S. Cavada, Alexandre H. Sampaio and Silvana Saker-Sampaio)

Natural antioxidants, also found in marine macroalgae, are bioactive compounds known to play an important role in the prevention of diseases associated with aging cells, protecting them against the oxidative damage. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of two species of red marine algae, Amansia multifida and Meristiella echinocarpa. The results have shown that extracts of both species exhibit antioxidant potential and low toxicity.

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● A new ascarid species in cynodont coprolite dated of 240 million years

(Priscilla A. da Silva, Victor H. Borba, Juliana M.F. Dutra, Daniela Leles, Atila A.S. Da-Rosa, Luiz F. Ferreira and Adauto Araujo)

Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites found in ancient material. The finding of parasites in host remains allows to trace a paleoepidemiological frame and the evolution of host-parasite-environment, from the past to present days. This began to cover steps of the evolution and by tracing phylogenies of parasites and their hosts. We describe the finding of Ascaridid eggs in a coprolite dated 140,000,000 old. Roundworms are commonly found today in a variety of extant fauna. The coprolites were identified as of Cynodont origin, a group of animals related to reptiles and mammals, which enriches the aspects cited above.

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● Histological features, starch accumulation and sprouting in the early root development of jacaranda ulei (Bignoniaceae)

(Paulo R.D. da Silva and Valdir M. Stefenon)

The histological features of the root system, the main sites of synthesis and storage of starch and the initial phases of bud development in Jacaranda ulei are described. We show that this species, native of the Brazilian Cerrado, displays morphological, anatomical and storage features needed to survive the drought and the wildfires in this biome. Since this species may be vulnerable to unsustainable exploitation, planning appropriate programs for the species management and the use of the described in vitro micropropagation protocol are recommended.

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● Studies in cambial activity: advances and challenges in knowledge of growth of dynamics of Brazilian woody species

(Cátia H. Callado, Thaís J. de Vasconcellos, Monique S. Costa, Claudia F. Barros, Fidel A. Roig and Mário Tomazello-Filho)

The lack of research on the sequence of events that determine woody plant growth represents a gap in the knowledge of growth dynamics in tropical species. This paper analyzes the “state of the art” of cambial activity studies on Brazilian native species, and thus, makes a comparison of methods and results. From this examination, we highlight the occurrence of cambium annual seasonality in all the investigated species, but also, a high heterogeneity in the used methodologies. Therefore, we propose a discussion about the need of defining a standard methodology for sampling and experimental design for the study of tropical species, in order to enhance the understanding of wood formation.

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● Evaluation of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and histochemical tests for aluminium detection in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, Southeast Brazil

(Naiara V. Campos, Tiago A.R. Pereira, Mariana F. Machado, Marcelo B.B. Guerra, Gláucia S. Tolentino, Josiane S. Araújo, Maíra Q. Rezende, Maria Carolina N.A. da Silva and Carlos E.G.R. Schaefer)

We demonstrated the feasibility of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (µ-EDX) combined with histochemical tests for in situ detection of Al in hyperaccumulator plant species. Ten species from High Altitude Rocky Complexes were analyzed and showed a range Al-concentration of 300-9000 mg kg-1. The Al was mainly associated with primary walls of epidermis, parenchyma and phloem cells. The high spatial resolution of µ-EDX and its inherent non-destructive capacity are attractive features of this method. Histochemical tests can be a helpful and simple tool aiming at screening purposes of main bioaccumulation sites before they are submitted to further μ-EDX scrutiny.

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● Cyanobacteria, microcystins and cylindrospermopsin in public drinking supply reservoirs of Brazil

(Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira, Viviane Piccin-Santos, Ariadne N. Moura, Nísia K.C. Aragão-Tavares and Micheline K. Cordeiro-Araújo)

Brazil has a history of contamination by cyanobacteria toxins in water reservoirs intended for public supply. Such toxins, microcystins and cylindropspermopsin among them, cause serious harms to humans. Ten reservoirs were researched in the northeast region, where microcystin were found in all and cylindropspermopsin in four of them. All cyanobacteria identified were potentially toxic. Considering the similarity of the cyanobacteria communities found in reservoirs, including toxin-producing species associated with cyanotoxins, we suggest that geographic spreading can be favored by this circumstance. These issues emphasize the need for increased monitoring of microcystins and cylindropspermopsin in drinking water supply reservoirs in Brazil.

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● Splendid oddness: revisiting the curious trophic relationships of South American Pleistocene Mammals and their abundance

(Richard A. Fariña, Ada Czerwonogora and Mariana Di Giacomo)

The South American Pleistocene mammal fauna includes great-sized animals that have intrigued scientists for over two centuries. They were the first source of inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution. Here we update the palaeoecological knowledge through a thermodynamical approach and models of per-taxa abundance of fossils in the Río de la Plata region. Bulk-feeding ground sloths (Lestodon and Glossotherium) were more represented in Uruguay, while more selective Scelidotherium and Megatherium were more abundant in Buenos Aires province. This megafauna behave differently from actualistic abundance vs. body mass models. Changes in sea level and available area in a seasonally exposed floodplain could account for these differences.

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● Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda) in a brazilian Amazon estuary

(Hebert A. Sampaio and Jussara M. Matinelli-Lemos)

The present work aims to verify the occupation and the correlation of shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops) from tide pools founded on the coast of Brazilian Amazon in order to identify the importance of the area for the species. The occurrence of predominantly freshwater species, estuarine and marine in the salt marsh (96.16%) reflects the extreme ecological importance of this habitat. Tide pools are environments that offer favorable resources for shrimps' development, being crucial for the maintenance and survival of this group, mainly Farfantepenaeus subtilis.

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● Oil collecting bees and Byrsonima cydoniifolia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae) interactions: the prevalence of long-distance cross pollination driving reproductive success

(Morgana S. Sazan, Antonio Diego M. Bezerra and Breno M. Freitas)

In species of Byrsonima the reproductive system have been described as auto-compatible or self-incompatible. We studied the reproductive system of Byrsonima cydoniifolia, the fructification by means of short, medium and long-distance cross pollinations, the morphology and floral biology and the pollination interactions with species of oil-collecting bees. By means of controlled pollinations we found self-incompatibility caused by abortion of most self-pollinated flowers and demonstrated that the prevailing cross pollination ensuring the reproductive success of B. cydoniifolia, is the long-distance cross pollination and Centridini bees; Epicharis nigrita, particularly, are the pollinators promoting the pollen flow between distinct populations.

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● Habitat Structural Effect on Squamata Fauna of the Restinga Ecosystem in Northeastern Brazil

(Eduardo J.R. Dias and Carlos F.D. Rocha)

In this work were studied the habitat structural effect on the richness and composition of squamatan reptiles in restinga ecosystem in the State of Bahia, Brazil. After 90 days of field sampling we recorded approximately 5% of reptile species known in Brazil. The genera Ameivula and Tropidurus were responsible for major differences in species composition. We believe that historical factors of regional formation may also have affected the Squamata assemblages, but our data are suggestive that aspects of structure of vegetation affected the richness and abundance, by supposedly creating different microhabitat opportunities affecting the distribution patterns of species observed.

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● Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays

(Larissa F. Andrade-Vieira, Carolina M. Botelho, Bruno G. Laviola, Marcel J. Palmieri and Milene M. Praça-Fontes)

The aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects. The tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests.

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● Diet and niche breadth and overlap in fish communities within the area affected by an Amazonian reservoir (Amapá, Brazil)

(Júlio C. Sá-Oliveira, Ronaldo Angelini and Victoria J. Isaac-Nahum)

We investigated the niche breadth and overlap of the fish species occurring in four environments of the oldest dam in Amazon region (Brazil). The majority of the 47 fish species belong to the piscivore, omnivore and detritivore guilds. Species have colonized the environments due to the availability of suitable feeding resources. Few species have ample niches (majority is highly specialized). Resources seasonal variation had little effect on the feeding behavior and competition was not a factor determining on community structure.

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● Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil

(Vanessa R. Matos, Severino M. Alencar and Francisco A.R. Santos)

This Article deals with propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area from the Semiarid region of the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, where they were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. The study detailed here has its importance in the primacy of addressing propolis samples exclusively from the territory of the Agreste of Alagoinhas. The results presented are the basis for future studies, in order to provide means for the certification of this apicultural product.

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● Effect of indigo dye effluent on the growth, biomass production and phenotypic plasticity of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorococcales)

(Mathias A. Chia and Rilwan I. Musa)

The effect of indigo dye effluent on Scenedesmus quadricauda ABU12 was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. The microalga was exposed to different concentrations of the effluent obtained by diluting the dye effluent from 100 to 175 times in bold basal medium (BBM). The EC50 was found to be 166 dilution factor of the effluent. Chlorophyll a, cell density, coenobium structure and dry weight production as biomarkers were negatively affected by high indigo dye effluent concentration, their levels were higher at low effluent concentrations (p <0.05). The systematic reduction in coenobium size confirms that it is affected by environmental stress.

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● Half-ironman induces changes in the kidney function of triathletes

(Enrico F. Puggina, Dalmo R.L. Machado, Hugo Tourinho Filho and Valdir J. Barbanti)

Aiming to investigate the effects of triathlon training and competition on the renal function, twelve male triathletes were studied during the 12-week training protocol and after a Half-ironman. Urine was collected in the beginning of the protocol (M-1), before (M-2) and after the competition (M-3). Changes were found after the competition for protein (7.41±2.48; 7.57±3.74; 86.10±76.21 mg/mL), creatinine (157.66±41.59; 177.68±44.46; 316.46±132.86 mg/mL), erythrocytes (1060.00±0.30; 1142.86±377.96; 52555.56±58.65 units/mL) and leucocytes (2375.00±744.02; 2090.00±0.50; 5000.00±2738.60 units/mL) excretion. These effects are probably due to the exercise-induced modifications in the glomerular membrane and endocrine variables.

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● Alcohol Effects on the P2 component of Auditory Evoked Potentials

(Oscar H. Hernández, Rolando García-Martínez and Víctor Monteón)

This work studied the ethanol effects on the rate of rise, amplitude and peak latency of the P2 component of the evoked potentials yielded by trains of auditory stimuli. Placebo (0 g/kg) or 0.8 g/kg of alcohol was administered to two groups of 15 young men who were tested before and after treatment. Compared to placebo, alcohol slowed the P2 rise rate and reduced its amplitude, with no effects on peak latency. The rise rate is more sensitive to alcohol but more resistant to the adaptation process. Alcohol resembles the response inhibition model acting against the adaptation

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● Patterns of Antimicrobial therapy in acute tonsillitis: a cross-sectional Hospital-based study from UAE

(Lisha J. John, Meenu Cherían, Jayadevan Sreedharan and Tambi Cherian)

Diseases of the ear, nose and throat (ENT) is a major cause for absenteeism from work. The study determined the antimicrobial prescription pattern in patients with acute tonsillitis using a cross sectional, hospital-based study among patients attending the ENT department. In a total of 238 patients included, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid and Ceftriaxone were the most common antimicrobials. Culture and sensitivity tests assisted in changing to appropriate antimicrobials. In conclusion, therapeutic guidelines based on the current sensitivity pattern in acute tonsillitis optimize the use of antimicrobial agents.

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● Does mating interfere in the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum?

(Dirceu Pratissoli, Thiago G. Kloss, Fernando D. Zinger, José R. de Carvalho, Ulysses R. Vianna and João P.P. Paes)

This paper evaluates the interference of mating on the biological features in a population of Trichogramma pretiosum, collected in the field, that has different reproductive traits. Results showed that mating reduces the parasitic capacity and longevity of females and it is also able to reduce the longevity of mated female offspring. Furthermore, this paper discusses the effects of reproductive traits of parasitoids for the control of insect populations.

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● Chemical composition and nutrient degradability in elephant grass silage incolulated with Streptococcus bovis isolated from the rumen

(Daniele J. Ferreira, Anderson M. Zanine, Rogério P. Lana, Marinaldo D. Ribeiro, Guilherme R. Alves and Hilário C. Mantovani)

The use of conserved fodder, mainly in the form of silage, is a viable alternative in order to ensure the provision of high-quality forage during the period of food shortages. In this reality, microbial inoculation has been pointed as an alternative to improve the fermentation profile and the nutritional value. The main characteristic refers to the specific speed of growth of this species, 30% superior to that of other species of lactic acid bacteria used as inoculants for silage, promoting improvements in the quality of the chemical composition and degradability of nutrients when silages are inoculated with streptococcus bovis.

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● Genetic divergence among accessions of Axonopus jesuiticus x A. Scoparius based on morphological and agronomical traits

(Simone M. Scheffer-Basso, Adriana Favaretto, Vanderleia Felini, Claudinei C. Gomes, Luis E. Carneiro and Kalinca Cecchin)

The giant missionary grass (A. jesuiticus x A. scoparius) is a vegetative propagated natural triploid that potentially resulted from more than one natural crossing event that occurred spontaneously in Alto Vale do Itajaí, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The divergence among five accessions, based on morphological and agronomic traits, indicates that the most striking traits for the identification of the accessions are the height of the plant and the color change of the leaf. The accessions also differ with regards to dry matter production.

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● Fruit quality preservation of ´Laetitia` plums under controlled atmosphere storage

(Cristiano André Steffens, Cassandro V.T. do Amarante, Erlani O. Alves and Auri Brackmann)

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● Impact of the timing and duration of weed control on the establishment of a rubber tree plantation

(Caio D. Guzzo, Leonardo B. de Carvalho, Paulo R.F. Giancotti, Pedro L.C.A. Alves, Elaine C.P. Gonçalves and José V.F. Martins)

Rubber tree growth is greatly influenced by the weed interference, reducing the plant height, the leaf dry mass, and the leaf area by more than 90% in the first year. However, the growth recovery, in the second year with no weed-crop coexistence, is substantial, so that the stem dry mass can increase up to 750%. Therefore, the critical period for weed control occurs between 4 and 9½ months after planting, but the rubber trees showed an expressive growth recovery when the weeds were controlled throughout the second year.

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● The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field

(Rita B. Barata, Erika Aragão, Luis E.P. Fernandes e Sousa, Taris M. Santana and Mauricio L. Barreto)

This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, highlighting the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge. Strength and power of the scientific communities were based on indicators of scientific prestige (social capital), social prestige (symbolic capital), political power (political capital), and economic resources (economic capital). After the analysis of the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities, a more clear view of the power and prestige of the different scientific communities emerged. It explains how different communities seeks to occupy social areas within the scientific field and the broader social arena.

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Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences

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